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PostPosted: Oct.21.09 4:20 pm 
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Дархлагдсан Гишvvн
Дархлагдсан Гишvvн
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Location: Adélie penguins struggle to save eggs submerged by snowmelt
Хэн нэгэнд хэрэгтэй болов уу эсвэл сонирхолтой санагдаж юуны магад гэсэндээ энд би олсон Буддхизмтай холбогдох кино болон баримтат киног тавилаа заримынх link ажиллахгүй болсон ч байж магадгүй юутай ч


Эхний ээлжинд дандаа Zen - гээс эхэллээ дараан Indo-Tibet гэсэн дараалалтайгаар оруулаа

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PostPosted: Oct.21.09 5:28 pm 
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Дархлагдсан Гишvvн
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Location: Adélie penguins struggle to save eggs submerged by snowmelt
Zen Buddhism: In Search of Self
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Zen Buddhism: In Search of Self
Filmed at Baek Hung Temple in Daegu, South Korea. Following a tradition dating back over a thousand years, two dozen Buddhist nuns gather for a ninety day period of meditation, fasting and contemplation deep in the mountains of South Korea. With the singular goal of attaining enlightenment, the nuns undertake a rigorous schedule of meditation, at one point sitting for seven days without sleep.

In this first ever documentary on the practice of Dong Ahn Geo, or Winter Zen retreat, you will witness not only the nuns' strict meditation practice, but their daily lives in which we see not only a deep spiritual discipline, but an almost childlike joy and simplicity.

Since the great monk and master Hyecheol built Baek Hung temple in the tenth century during the Silla dynasty (AD 57-935), the temple has been known for the most rigorous Cham Sun (Zen) practice. Forbidden until now, the camera captures the austere beauty of the Korea.

Download
http://www.mininova.org/tor/2349280
http://isohunt.com/torrent_details/6927 ... ab=summary

The Man on Cloud Mountain (1992)
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The Man on Cloud Mountain : A Video Documentary on Shodo Harada Roshi

Shodo Harada Roshi was born in 1940 in Nara, Japan. He began his Zen training in 1962 when he entered Shofuku-ji monastery in Kobe, Japan, where he trained under Yamada Mumon Roshi (1900-1988) for twenty years. He was then given dharma transmission (inka) and was subsequently made abbot of Sogenji monastery in Okayama, Japan, where he has taught since 1982.
Harada Roshi (Roshi means "teacher") is heir to the teachings of Rinzai sect Zen Buddhism as passed down in Japan from Hakuin and his successors. Harada Roshi's teaching includes the traditional Rinzai practices of daily sutra chanting, zazen (seated meditation), sanzen (private interviews with the teacher), susokkan (breathing), koan ('past cases') study, samu (work), sesshin (intensive retreats), teisho (lectures by the teacher), and takuhatsu (alms receiving). While the outward appearance of this type of training may seem rigorous and spartan to some, it is important to note that Harada's teaching is formed by deep compassion and permeated by the simple and direct Mahayana doctrine that all beings are endowed with the clear, pure Original Buddha Mind. The purpose of our training is to realize this mind in ourselves and in all other beings.

On Youtube
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H7lhg4-YD5Q

Zen Master Seung Sahn's "Wake up! On the Road with a Zen Master"
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Zen Master Seung Sahn's "Wake up! On the Road with a Zen Master"
Zen Master Seung Sahn's teaching documentary "Wake up! On the Road with a Zen Master". A professional and entertaining documentary that captures Zen Master Seung Sahn's energy while presenting the core of his teaching. Wake Up! is not only a rare portrait of an unusual and provocative teacher, but also an introduction to Zen Buddhism today. Wake Up! was shot on location during a teaching trip in Europe by award-winning independent filmmaker Brad Anderson from Boston.

On Google Video
http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid ... 653444091#

A Zen Life - D.T. Suzuki - Michael Goldberg
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A Zen Life - D.T. Suzuki - Michael Goldberg

"A ZEN LIFE - D.T. Suzuki" is a 77-minute documentary about Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki (1870-1966), credited with introducing Zen Buddhism to the West.

D.T. Suzuki had an excellent grasp of written and spoken English, combined with an exhaustive knowledge of Eastern and Western religions and philosophies. He was highly successful at getting Westerners to appreciate the Japanese mentality, and Japanese to understand Western logic. The effect he had on Western psychoanalysis, philosophy, religious thinking, and the arts was profound. His numerous writings in English and Japanese serve as an inspiration even today.

Dr. Suzuki first lived in the United States from 1897 to 1908. In 1911 he married an American, Beatrice Lane, who helped him with his work until her death in 1939. After the War he traveled and taught extensively in the United States and Europe. Of note is a series of very popular open lectures he gave at Columbia University. Many renowned Western philosophers, artists, and psychologists were affected by his writings and friendship, including Carl Jung and Erich Fromm, Christmas Humphries, Father Thomas Merton, Martin Heidegger, Karl Jaspers, Dr. Albert Stunkard, Alan Watts, Richard De Martino, Robert Aitken, John Cage, Alan Ginsberg, and Gary Snyder.

Gary Snyder calls D.T. Suzuki "probably the most culturally significant Japanese person in international terms, in all of history."

Along with Gary Snyder, there are exclusive interviews of many people respected in their own right who knew D.T. Suzuki in person, including his secretary Mihoko Okamura, and rare footage of Thomas Merton, John Cage, Erich Fromm, and Suzuki himself.

There have been few people capable of bridging the logic of Americans and Europeans and the Eastern approach to life as well as he. Indeed, one of the goals of Zen is to transcend dichotomies. The main purpose of this documentary is to "bring D.T. Suzuki alive," and serve to motivate people in the West and Japan to know themselves better while respecting one another. Daisetz Suzuki's message is all the more important now, in light of contemporary conflicts stemming from divergent ways of thinking.

Download
http://rapidshare.com/files/224825329/azlDTS.part1.rar
http://rapidshare.com/files/224842988/azlDTS.part2.rar
http://rapidshare.com/files/224906414/azlDTS.part3.rar
http://rapidshare.com/files/224925832/azlDTS.part4.rar
http://rapidshare.com/files/224952925/azlDTS.part5.rar
http://rapidshare.com/files/224970042/azlDTS.part6.rar
http://rapidshare.com/files/224825333/azlDTS.part7.rar

Sun Rising East
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Sun Rising East: Zen Master Seung Sahn Gives Transmission
Record of the 1992 Dharma Transmission and 20th anniversary celebrations, plus interviews with four zen masters.

Seung Sahn Haeng Won Dae Soen-sa (Korean: 숭산행원대선사, Hanja: 崇山行願大禪師) (c. 1927—November 30, 2004), born Dok-In Lee, was a Korean Jogye Seon master and founder of the international Kwan Um School of Zen—the largest school of Zen present in the Western world. He was the seventy-eighth teacher in his lineage. As one of the first Korean Zen masters to settle in the United States, he opened many temples and practice groups across the globe. He was known for his charismatic style and direct presentation of Zen, which was well tailored for the Western audience. Known by students for his many correspondences with them through letters, his utilization of Dharma combat, and expressions such as "only don't know" or "only go straight" in teachings, he was conferred the honorific title of Dae Soen Sa Nim in June 2004 by the Jogye order for a lifetime of achievements. Considered the highest honor to have bestowed upon one in the order, the title translates to mean Great honored Zen master. He died in November that year at Hwa Gae Sah in Seoul, South Korea, at age 77.

On Google Video
http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid ... =de&dur=3#

Zen Buddhism: Shunryu Suzuki Roshi Interviews
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Zen Buddhism: Shunryu Suzuki Roshi Interviews
A collection of very rare interviews and talks with the late Shunryu Suzuki.

On Youtube
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XG84aYMQ ... r_embedded
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qmt5gBKe ... re=related
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xo7l7pid ... re=related
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pvPM2Nyp ... re=related
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FphVeAVk ... re=related

The Land of the Disappearing Buddha-Japan
The Long Search
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Ronald Eyre takes the viewer on a pilgrimage beginning in London and spanning 150,000 miles including India, Japan, Israel, Rumania, Sri Lanka, Hong Kong, The United States, Egypt, and South Africa. Series of 13 programs, Producer: BBC/Time Life Films
Series DVD
http://rapidshare.com/files/242036395/T ... _5.torrent rapidlink to torrent
http://rapidshare.com/files/237663537/T ... _2.torrent DISC2 torrent link
http://rapidshare.com/files/242036395/T ... _5.torrent DISC5 torrent link

Buddhism: The Land of the Disappearing Buddha-Japan (Vol. 9)

If the Buddha of India met the Buddha of Japan, would they recognize each other? To find out, this program talks to the staff in a Tokyo restaurant who keep regular Zen meditation schedules as part of their job, then on to the classical Zen calligraphy, swordfighting, archery and tea ceremony.

Three great Rinzai Zen Masters of XX century appear in this video: Mumon Yamada (1900—1988), Omori Sogen (1904—1994) and Kobori Roshi Nanrei Sohaku (1918—1992)

Mumon Yamada has authorized for the first and the only time in history, that camera can film the sanzen ( stritly private encounter of Master and student where student gives his answer to a koan )

-this episode of "The Long Search" also shows others religions and practices in Japan, like Pure Land Buddhism, Shinto, Soka-Gakkai, Tea ceremony, Archery, Caligraphy etc.

Download Rapidshare
http://rapidshare.com/files/242783042/Z ... .part1.rar
http://rapidshare.com/files/242822105/Z ... .part2.rar
http://rapidshare.com/files/242841381/Z ... .part3.rar
http://rapidshare.com/files/242863056/Z ... .part4.rar

Empty Mind

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Empty Mind
Two years in the making - a small dedicated film crew, all black belt martial artists themselves, traveled throughout Japan and China to film today's great masters of the martial arts. We are invited into never before seen training halls and dojos to film unrestricted while the master teaches his students. In-depth interviews reveal the mind-set of a master who has spent over 50 years perfecting his art. This is not the mind that we know in the West - in the East it The Empty Mind or No Mind. Includes Shaolin KungFu, Beijing WuShu, Wudang TaiChi, Shotokan Karate, Aikido, Kyudo and Kendo... and more.

Download Rapidshare
http://rapidshare.com/files/146910492/e ... .part1.rar
http://rapidshare.com/files/146910890/e ... .part2.rar
http://rapidshare.com/files/146911331/e ... .part3.rar
http://rapidshare.com/files/146911757/e ... .part4.rar
http://rapidshare.com/files/146912054/e ... .part5.rar
http://rapidshare.com/files/146912352/e ... .part6.rar
http://rapidshare.com/files/146912701/e ... .part7.rar
http://rapidshare.com/files/146912828/e ... .part8.rar

Extreme Pilgrim - China
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Extreme Pilgrim
Pete Owen-Jones, a vicar in a Sussex parish, is dissatisfied with some aspects of his faith and sets off on three extreme pilgrimages to China, India and Egypt to explore Zen Buddhism, Hinduism and ascetic Christianity.
Shaolin Monastery
Pete arrives at the famous Shaolin Temple, a seven-hour train journey from Beijing in the Hevan Province, right in the centre of China. The Shaolin Monastery occupies a central place in Chinese cultural history, as it is the ancestral home of all martial arts.
Pete says "The Church of England in particular is incredibly intellectual. You know, huge libraries full of books and theological bookshops. But we don't do anything physical. It's going to be very challenging indeed."
Pete is thrown straight into a gruelling routine of Kung Fu, the central technique in Chan Buddhism (also known as Zen Buddhism in Japan).

On Mininova
http://www.mininova.org/tor/1161423

Between Two Worlds: A Japanese Pilgrimage
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Between Two Worlds: A Japanese Pilgrimage
For centuries, pilgrims have come to the Japanese island of Shikoku to trace the 1,000-mile route known as the "Pilgrimage to the 88 Sacred Places of Shikoku," a journey believed to have been first undertaken by Kobo Daishi, founder of Buddhism's Shingon sect in the ninth century.

This illuminating documentary is a visual meditation on the phenomenon of pilgrimage and, to a lesser extent, on the processes of ethnographic filmmaking. It combines images of traditional and modern Japan, excerpts from the writings of Kobo Daishi, and commentary by pilgrims, everyday Japanese, and the filmmakers themselves to explore the meaning and persistence of "pilgrimage" in contemporary industrial Japan.

By examining the effects that rapid change has had on this ritual journey, the film asks: Why do people still undertake pilgrimages to "sacred" places? This thought-provoking documentary will generate discussion in courses in Asian studies, Japanese studies, cultural anthropology, Buddhism, and comparative religion. It was produced by Joanne Hershfield and Susan Caperna Lloyd.

On Youtube
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZjJOpYTO ... annel_page

Big Mind - Big Heart: Finding Your Way (DVD)
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Big Mind - Big Heart: Finding Your Way (DVD)

This DVD presents a highly original and accessible pathway to self-discovery and personal liberation. Since 1999 the Big Mind process has been experienced by many thousands of people in seminars across America. Big Mind employs a Jungian voice dialogue technique that enables people to step out of limited self-concepts into awareness of their many different sub-selves (emotions/mental states). In addition to exploration of the more familiar sub-voices like anger and fear, author Zen Master Dennis Genpo Merzel uses this technique to help people access the ever-present Big Mind/Big Heart awareness - the clear, "just being" awareness and the unconditional compassion that we all can experience. The Big Mind process is now available on DVD to bring people of all backgrounds many benefits including: access to our innate wisdom, compassion and equanimity; openness of mind and ability to shift perspectives; greater presence and empowerment; and appreciation for the wisdom within all of our many sub-selves even ones we tend to dislike or disown, like fear and anger.

Download
http://btjunkie.org/torrent/Big-Mind-Bi ... 57db740d2a

How to Cook Your Life
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How to Cook Your Life
This documentary profiles Zen Master Edward Espe Brown and shows the art of Zen and cooking. Espe Brown first became interested in baking as an 11-year kid when he realized the startling difference between mass-produced supermarket bread and the fresh homemade stuff. When he asked his mother to teach him how to bake, however, she said "No, yeast makes me nervous."

Brown became the head cook at the Tassajara Mountain Centre in California when he was in his early 20s, and has been practicing the art of Zen Buddhism and cooking for more than 40 years. As a chef, he is typically short-tempered and exacting, but as a Buddhist master he is exactly the opposite. Director Dörrie (Men, Naked) sets her camera on Espe Brown as he travels from the Scheibbs Buddhist Centre in Austria to Tassajara, offering cooking seminars based upon the principles established 800 years ago by Master Eihei Dogen Zenji, the founder of the Japanese Soto-Zen school. Master Dogen wrote about the necessity of treating food as if it was as valuable as your eyesight. From washing rice, to preparing vegetables, every action could be a path to Zen. Or as the master said, "When you're washing the rice, wash the rice." A charming taskmaster who regularly punctures his holiness with moments of self-deprecation and humour, Espe Brown's observations on modern culture, cooking and human foibles are often as acerbic and hilarious as they are profound.

Download
http://www.mininova.org/tor/1538542

The Zen Mind

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The Zen Mind is a journey across Japan to explore the practice of Zen. We reveal the daily routine of a zen monk and take you inside the walls of the zen monastery and into a world never imagined by outsiders. Step inside the zendo or meditation hall, where the monks sit in zazen - searching for the middle path to enlightenment - it is a long hard journey. Every aspect of zen is uncovered - from a zen center in the middle of the bustling streets of Tokyo, to the mountains above Kyoto. Includes interviews with major zen masters and roshi.
http://www.torrentreactor.net/torrents/ ... e-Zen-Mind

Amongst white clouds
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Amongst White Clouds

An unforgettable journey into the hidden tradition of China's Buddhist hermit monks Amongst White Clouds is an intimate insider's look at students and masters living in scattered retreats dotting China's Zhongnan Mountain range. These peaks have reputedly been home to recluses since the time of the Yellow Emperor, some five thousand years ago. It was widely thought that the tradition was all but wiped out, but this film emphatically and beautifully shows us otherwise. One of only a few foreigners to have lived and studied with these elusive practitioners, American director Edward Burger is able, with humor and compassion, to present their tradition, their wisdom, and the hardship and joy of their everyday lives among the clouds. Filmed on location in China Written and Directed by Edward Burger Produced by Chad Pankewitz A Cosmos Pictures Production Official Selection: Mill Valley Film Festival, Taos Mountain Film Festival, Denver Starz Film Festival, True/False Film Festival, Maui Film Festival, Santa Fe Film Festival, Tahoe/Reno Film Festival, Mt. Shasta International Film Festival

On Google Video
http://video.google.com/videosearch?q=A ... mb=0&aq=f#

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PostPosted: Oct.21.09 5:54 pm 
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Дархлагдсан Гишvvн
Дархлагдсан Гишvvн
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Joined: Sep.03.06 4:44 pm
Posts: 1287
Location: Adélie penguins struggle to save eggs submerged by snowmelt
Tibet A Buddhist Trilogy
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Tibet A Buddhist Trilogy
The Internationally Acclaimed Classic-- Now available on DVD for the first time, this documentary was hailed as a masterpiece following its first release in 1979. Digitally re-mastered, with new material and a new commentary, Tibet: A Buddhist Trilogy takes you on an intimate journey deep into the heart of an ancient Buddhist world. Four years in the making and hailed as a cinematic masterpiece in 1979, writer/director Graham Coleman's three-part feature has been unseen for over 20 years. Now, the film has been reworked into a single presentation, complete with digital restoration of the original material and new commentary. Part 1 is an intimate portrait of the Dalai Lama as a spiritual and temporal leader. Part 2 journeys deep into the mystical inner world of monastic life and presents an authentic revelation of tantric Buddhism, with commentaries by the great 20th century master Dudjom Rinpoche. Part 3, photographed in the awesome landscapes of Ladakh, is a meditation on impermanence and the depiction of the monastery's moving ritual response to a death in the community.

Download
http://thepiratebay.org/torrent/4318051 ... _-_Karmapa

National Geographic : Science of the Mind
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Buddhism asks the fundamental questions: what is life and what is the point of existence? Wade Davis goes on an anthropological and spiritual path into the Himalayas of Nepal to learn the deepest lesson of Buddhist practice.

Download
http://thepiratebay.org/torrent/3628426 ... PB.torrent

The Yogis of Tibet
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This breathtaking film details the history of Buddhism in Tibet going back to Padma Sambhava. It has an awesome soundtrack with flute music by Nawang Khechog. The yogis that appear on this film were once sworn to absolute secrecy but have agreed to these rare interviews and demonstrations of their practices to record their vanishing culture for posterity. This is quite simply the best and most profoundly moving film on Tibetan culture and Tibetan buddhist practices available today

Download
http://thepiratebay.org/torrent/3639258 ... PB.torrent

10 Questions for the Dalai Lama[/color
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10 Questions for the Dalai Lama
How do you reconcile a commitment to non-violence when faced with violence? Why do the poor often seem happier than the rich? Must a society lose its traditions in order to move into the future? These are some of the questions posed to His Holiness the Dalai Lama by filmmaker and explorer Rick Ray. Ray examines some of the fundamental questions of our time by weaving together observations from his own journeys throughout India and the Middle East, and the wisdom of an extraordinary spiritual leader. This is his story, as told and filmed by Rick Ray during a private visit to his monastery in Dharamsala, India over the course of several months. Also included is rare historical footage as well as footage supplied by individuals who at great personal risk, filmed with hidden cameras within Tibet. Part biography, part philosophy, part adventure and part politics, "10 Questions for The Dalai Lama" conveys more than history and more than answers - it opens a window into the heart of an inspiring man. If you had only one hour, what would you ask?

Download
http://btjunkie.org/torrent/10-Question ... 1d3fd95752

CBC: Blue Buddha: Lost Secrets of Tibetan Medicine
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Twelve hundred years ago the people of Tibet developed a comprehensive medical system. They understood how the mind affects the body. They knew subtle ways of changing the body's chemistry with medicines made from plants and minerals. They blessed their medicines in lengthy rituals. And they encoded this knowledge in a series of elaborate paintings called thangkas.

Blue Buddha: Lost Secrets of Tibetan Medicine focuses on the life of a Buddhist monk and a doctor who practices traditional Tibetan medicine in Siberia. It hasn't always been easy. At times he's been hounded by the KGB and forbidden to leave the country. Through it all he's kept his faith in the power of Buddhist medicine. This documentary follows Tuvan Lama, in his role as vital member of this remote community, as he treats his patients, conducts traditional rituals and passes on this vast medical heritage to the next generation.

Just as Buddhism informs the rituals of this community, Tuvan Lama believes Buddhism and Tibetan Medicine go together, as they are inseparable. He believes one has to know the foundation of Buddhism in order to understand the foundations of the medicine. To his mind, it needs to be understood with the body, the mind, and the soul.

Download
http://www.mininova.org/tor/544779

The Life of Buddha
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The Life of Buddha
BBC Documentary : Over 2,500 years ago, one man showed the world a way to enlightenment. This beautifully produced Buddhist film meticulously reveals the fascinating story of Prince Siddhartha and the spiritual transformation that turned him into the Buddha.

Download
http://isohunt.com/torrent_details/1513 ... ab=summary
On Youtube
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P2NLQGrbf5U

The Yatra Trilogy
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Yatra is the Sanskrit word for pilgrimage or spiritual journey. These visually stunning documentaries are cinematic pilgrimages to legendary places in Southeast Asia and Tibet, including the spiritual wonders of Laos, Thailand, Burma, Bali, Cambodia, Java, and Central Tibet. Journey into the living traditions and lost civilizations of this vibrant part of the world and explore the universal ideals of wisdom, compassion, and inner peace at the very heart of these ancient Buddhist cultures.

Download
http://www.mininova.org/tor/758259

Tibet :Cry of the Snow Lion
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Tibet: Cry of the Snow Lion
Ten years in the making, this award-winning documentary was filmed during a remarkable nine journeys throughout Tibet, India and Nepal. CRY OF THE SNOW LION brings audiences to the long-forbidden "rooftop of the world" with an unprecedented richness of imagery… from rarely-seen rituals in remote monasteries, to horse races with Khamba warriors; from brothels and slums in the holy city of Lhasa, to the magnificent Himalayan peaks still traveled by nomadic yak caravans. The dark secrets of Tibet’s recent past are powerfully chronicled through riveting personal stories and interviews, and a collection of undercover and archival images never before assembled in one film. A definitive exploration of a legendary subject, TIBET: CRY OF THE SNOW LION is an epic story of courage and compassion.

Download
http://btjunkie.org/torrent/Tibet-Cry-o ... 5a7149f562

Karmapa - Two Ways of Divinity
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Karmapa - Two Ways of Divinity
Apart from the exiled Dalai Lama, who is living in India, Tibetan Buddhism has various other spiritual leaders. One of them is the leader of the Karmapa sect, whose birth was already
predicted by the first Buddha, Siddharta Gautama. When the sixteenth reincarnation of the Karmapa leader died in the United States in 1981, monks start a search for the next reincarnation. Ten years later, representatives of the Chinese government in Tibet say they have found him, but an alternative candidate is pushed forward in India. This is the onset of a fierce political sparring. All in all, the production of this double portrait of both hallowed youngsters took six years. Prior to the shooting period from 1994 to 1997, director Arto Halonen (1964) had to wait for three years for permission by the Chinese authorities to film in Tibet, but he concealed the fact that the Dalai Lama and the second intended Karmapa leader, also living in exile in India, would be in his film, too.

A unique, award-winning documentary on the Karmapa and how China used him as a
springboard for its politics that has led to the violation of religious rights. On another level, the film tells the story of the existence of two rival candidates for the title of Karmapa and how the situation of two Karmapas provoked an internal crisis within the Buddhist denomination, as proponents split into different camps. The documentary was made between 1994 -1998 in Tibet, China and India and features the Dalai Lama as well as representatives of the Chinese Government.

Download Rapidshare
http://rapidshare.com/files/131187927/Karmapa.part1.rar
http://rapidshare.com/files/131188274/Karmapa.part2.rar
http://rapidshare.com/files/131188445/Karmapa.part3.rar
http://rapidshare.com/files/131188558/Karmapa.part4.rar
http://rapidshare.com/files/131188656/Karmapa.part5.rar
http://rapidshare.com/files/131185347/Karmapa.part6.rar

What Remains of Us
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What Remains of Us (2004)
Forced to seek refuge in India and still viewed by China as a threat to national security, the Dalai Lama had never returned to Lhasa. For 50 years, he had been prevented from crossing the mountains separating him prom his homeland. For 50 years, he had not spoken directly to Tibetans inside the country. Kalsang Dolma, a young Tibetan refugee in Quebec, crosses the Himalayas. Into the largest prison in the world, she carries a video message recorded by the spiritual and political leader of Tibetans. Families gather around the tiny screen, transfixed, and for one of the first times, the voices of this fragile people under the yoke of suffering reach us from across the distance.

This film was shot without the knowledge of the Chinese authorities, using small digital cameras, during nearly a dozen secret forays into Tibet between 1996 and 2004.

Download
http://www.bittorrent.am/torrent/371491 ... D-MP3.html
http://www.mininova.org/tor/2602019

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PostPosted: Nov.01.09 2:15 am 
Offline
Дархлагдсан Гишvvн
Дархлагдсан Гишvvн
User avatar

Joined: Sep.03.06 4:44 pm
Posts: 1287
Location: Adélie penguins struggle to save eggs submerged by snowmelt
Buddha Wild: Monk in a Hut
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Buddha Wild: Monk in a Hut (2006)
Buddha Wild Monk in the Hut provides an opportunity for a group of Thai and Sri Lankan monks, living around their temple in a country far far from home,to talk about their commitment and way of life in a typically modest Buddhist way. Anna Wilding gives the commentary in this unpretentious but original and illuminating film with a well-judged mixture of seriousness and humor which is in important contrast to the monks words. An enjoyable cinematic experience.

Watch
http://www.cultureunplugged.com/play/15 ... k-in-a-Hut

Asian Corridor In Heaven ( 2008 )

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Asian Corridor In Heaven

Description: Part of the Insight Asia series, Asian Corridor In Heaven is a six-episode HD documentary series co-produced by KBS and NHK about the world's oldest trade route, the "Ancient Tea and Horse Caravan Road". Pre-dating the Silk Road by 200 years, the Ancient Tea and Horse Caravan Road crossed from the Sichuan and Yunnan provinces of Southwest China over mountainous terrain into Tibet, Nepal, and India. The Caravan Road was not only an important route for the trade of tea and horses, but also a corridor connecting Chinese and Tibetan language, people, religion, and cultures.

Ep1. The Last Horse Caravan
Ep2. Road To Pilgrimage
Ep3. Tea makes the Road Open
Ep4. The Salt in Yanjing. The Crystal by Woman
Ep5. Himalayan Salt Trek
Ep6. Guge. Mystery of The Lost Kingdom

Download link
http://depositfiles.com/en/files/pdxrifxda

The Land of the Disappearing Buddha-Japan
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Ronald Eyre takes the viewer on a pilgrimage beginning in London and spanning 150,000 miles including India, Japan, Israel, Rumania, Sri Lanka, Hong Kong, The United States, Egypt, and South Africa. Series of 13 programs, Producer: BBC/Time Life Films

Series DVD Rapidshare Link to Torrent
http://rapidshare.com/files/242036395/T ... _5.torrent
http://rapidshare.com/files/237663537/T ... _2.torrent
http://rapidshare.com/files/242036395/T ... _5.torrent

Buddhism: The Land of the Disappearing Buddha-Japan (Vol. 9)

If the Buddha of India met the Buddha of Japan, would they recognize each other? To find out, this program talks to the staff in a Tokyo restaurant who keep regular Zen meditation schedules as part of their job, then on to the classical Zen calligraphy, swordfighting, archery and tea ceremony.

Three great Rinzai Zen Masters of XX century appear in this video: Mumon Yamada (1900—1988), Omori Sogen (1904—1994) and Kobori Roshi Nanrei Sohaku (1918—1992)

Mumon Yamada has authorized for the first and the only time in history, that camera can film the sanzen ( stritly private encounter of Master and student where student gives his answer to a koan )

-this episode of "The Long Search" also shows others religions and practices in Japan, like Pure Land Buddhism, Shinto, Soka-Gakkai, Tea ceremony, Archery, Caligraphy etc.

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Act Normal (2006)
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Act Normal (2006)
Robert T. Edison was born and raised in Nottingham, England. When he was fourteen years old he began to practice Buddhism. At eighteen he became a monk and went to Thailand where, for a decade, he spent his time in monasteries. He became the first Buddhist monk in Iceland when he moved there in 1994 and founded a Buddhist sect. Five years later Robert decided to “disrobe” and get married. After sixteen years of celibacy Robert had to deal with being “normal” – getting employment, paying his bills and dealing with the needs of his partner. After four years in “the real world” Robert travelled back to Thailand to become a monk again. Act Normal was filmed from 1994 to 2006 and is a unique exploration of one man’s twelve-year search for some kind of love.

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Ghandhara: The Renaissance of Buddhism

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Ghandhara: The Renaissance of Buddhism
Eurasia” represents a spectacular adventure, a visual conquest of the East in 8 episodes. A magical voyage through time and space, exploring the history, culture and religions that link East and West: from the Persian Empire of Alexander the Great to the huge Mongolian Empire of Kublai Khan, the destinies of highly developed civilizations intermingled until they converged to take the shape of a Eurasian civilization shared by all of us. Babylon, Persepolis, Ai-Khanoum, Baghdad, Rome…are virtually recreated with incomparable realism by computer generated images.

In India in the 6th century BC, Sakyamuni, "a wise man of the Sakya tribe", had been meditating under a tree when, suddenly, he was struck with the comprehension of all things. He became Buddha, meaning the « Illuminated ». His message, based on a pragmatic philosophy, taught how to free oneself from all needs in order to achieve illumination. After the death of the Enlightened One, his disciples – a few monks – began to spread his teachings all over India, from Ceylon to the Himalayan.

Fearing man’s penchant for idol worship, Buddha expressly forbade that his image should be represented in whatever form. Therefore, the Indian philosophers told his life story without ever showing in any form other than that of a simple lotus, a tree or a horse without a rider. The Buddhist missionaries began to build monasteries – they discovered that the local population was a mix of settlers from Greece, Egypt and Antioch as well as descendants from Alexander’s soldiers.

Influenced by Greek sculpture, Buddhism began to represent the Enlightened One in a Hellenised form. The Buddhist philosophy became less abstract and was better understood and henceforth widely adopted. Buddhism is a blend of spirit and culture which is unique in the history of mankind – it achieved the successful encounter of East and West.

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PBS Nova: Lost Treasures of Tibet (2003) - Documentary

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PBS Nova: Lost Treasures of Tibet (2003) - Documentary

Mustang, one of the last outposts of Tibetan culture, is so isolated and protected, no Westerner set foot inside its borders for centuries. But in the early 1990s, this untouched society set high in the Himalayas opened its borders for the first time, exposing an ancient world's dazzling sacred relics long damaged by the elements and neglect. Today, outsiders are working with local townspeople to rescue priceless masterpieces dating back to the 13th century - but can these efforts preserve history in a way that is acceptable to the local culture? Join the race against time as art and restoration experts mix history, science and politics in a complicated and daunting mission to preserve these religious works of art. Travel to a remote part of the world for a remarkably rare look at the spectacular art created by a clandestine Buddhist culture. See astonishingy intricate and expressive Medieval wall paintings, woodcarvings, and a gravity-defying monastery built atop a cliff. And watch as science helps reveal vibrantly colored treasures from the past. With gods literally peeling off the walls, will outsiders be trusted with saving the sacred art of Mustang?

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The Fire Yogi: A Story of an Extraordinary Journey
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The Fire Yogi: A Story of an Extraordinary Journey

3dMaxMedia Inc. introduces The Fire Yogi a 47 minute documentary exploring the journey of a Yogi who has the extraordinary ability to use a unique breathing technique to get into union with Fire. This non-religious documentary portrays a rare and unusual Fire Ritual performed by a Yogi from India and the subsequent chemical analysis of his clothing and physical tests that examine this supernatural phenomenon. The Yogi has performed this Fire Ritual for a total of 1000 days over the last 45 years. The Yogi, weighing a mere 94 pounds around 43 kilos has been able to survive on only two bananas and a mere glass of milk with a few drops of water twice a day for the last 28 years. The ritual is performed for Universal Harmony , Global Welfare and Individual Prosperity. Many aspects of the Yogi are on the edge of unbelievability, while at the same time highlighting the power and endurance of human mind, body and spirit.

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Yoga Unveiled
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Yoga Unveiled
Harnessing the colorful commentary of the most prominent yoga scholars, teachers, and medical experts, Yoga Unveiled reveals how yoga began, tells the story of yoga's passage to the West, describes its numerous branches, recounts the fascinating biographies of the foremost yoga masters, and explores yoga's astonishing medical potential. Yoga Unveiled also features commentary by Krishna Das, Dr. Herbert Benson, Edwin Bryant, Subhash Kak, Vasant Lad, Dr. Timothy McCall, Pandit Rajmani Tigunait, Father Joe Pereira, Swami Sivananda, Dr. Martina Ziska, and Dharma Mittra.

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Women of Tibet: Gyalyum Chemo-The Great Mother
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Women of Tibet: Gyalyum Chemo-The Great Mother recounts the compelling story of a simple village woman who gave birth to the boy who was destined to become His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama. Set against the stunning backdrop of the Himalayas, rare footage of Tibet and photographs from private family collections present a never before seen perspective of the Dalai Lama and his family.Weaving anecdotal threads and intimate personal reflections from family and friends, this film offers a rare glimpse into Tibet's first family and the woman who inspired them. His Holiness describes how his mother helped shaped the man he is today and how the relationship between a healthy family and a healthy humanity all begins with a mothers love.
Alice Walker (The Color Purple), Angeles Arrien (The Second Half of Life), and Dr. Marion Woodman (Addiction To Perfection), link this unique Tibetan story to the universal power of motherhood and how the Great Mother lives within each of us.

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Discovering Buddhism
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Discovering Buddhism (2004)
Discovering Buddhism: A Review by Bill Blackmore and Patricia Rogers. We were fortunate to see this excellent thirteen-part series over several nights in a small theatre in our hometown and even more fortune to be able to revisit it on video in our own home. Discovering Buddhism is a unique production, beautifully conceived, designed and photographed to give a brief, yet profound, introduction to the vast subject of Buddhism. The thirteen topics range from Mind and Its Potential, How to Meditate, Wisdom of Emptiness to Introduction to Tantra. These topics include segments on Bodhichitta, Refuge, The Path, and Daily Practice. Each 30-minute video is presented in the form of a complete practice: Introduction, Motivation, Teachers, Students, and Dedication. Opening each video, and between each segment, there are a series of visual montages in which we experience stunning images of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, Lama Yeshe, Lama Zopa Rinpoche, processions of monks, and many other precious vignettes accompanied by Tibetan music and chanting. There is wisdom, blessing and devotion in each heart and mind- opening experience. From introductions by either Richard Gere or Keanu Reeves, we move to Ven. Connie Miller who leads us in a thoughtful motivation specific to each topic. Then at the heart of the series are teachings by some of the most revered teachers of our time: His Holiness the Dalai Lama, Ribur Rinpoche, Lama Zopa Rinpoche, Lama Thubten Yeshe, Ven. Robina Courtin, Ven. Sangye Khandro, Ven. Sarah Thresher, Ven. Thubten Chodron, Jan Willis and many others. Each subject is taught by both a Tibetan and a Western teacher, giving us a range of perspectives. The teachings are clear, specific, and inspiring, with the key points (for example, the Ten Qualities of a Teacher by His Holiness the Dalai Lama) displayed for emphasis at the end. Several Western students discuss the teaching and its application to daily life.

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Little Buddha
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On the film Little Buddha: Zen Master Seung Sahn

During his recent swing through the East Coast, Zen Master Seung Sahn was asked by several people his opinion of the movie, "Little Buddha." As the first feature-length movie to deal with the life of the Buddha and Buddhist teachings, "Little Buddha" has drawn many different reactions from members of the American Buddhist sangha. The following comments were made in response to a question asked by a student during Zen Master Seung Sahn's public Dharma talk at the Providence Zen Center, June 24, 1994:

Question: Zen Master, someone told me that you recently saw this movie, Little Buddha. What is your opinion of this movie and the teaching it contains? I heard that the filmmaker tried to use this movie as a vehicle to transmit Buddhist teaching to a wide audience...

Zen Master Seung Sahn: The first half of this movie was very good, and had good teaching. The beginning of the movie showed the Buddha as a young prince, how he was struck by the suffering of the world. The movie also showed the Buddha leaving home to find his true self. That's a very important point: the Buddha left home, left his wife and child, left the palace in order to answer this question for all beings: "What am I? What is a human being?"

But the second half of the movie was not as clear. The Buddha left home, and never went back to his family. He never went back to his good situation. In the movie, this young American boy is taken by the teachers. He leaves the world of samsara, just like the Buddha did. But at the end of the movie, the boy is back with his parents again. That's not clear teaching. He already left home: Why go back to his parents? What kind of teaching is this? It does not connect to the Buddha's life.

Also, this movie does not show the young boy growing up, getting enlightenment and teaching other people. That's the point of him being recognized as a teacher. So that's not complete. It's like when you go to the bathroom. After you use the toilet, you must wipe yourself. That's how you finish the job! This movie should show what happened to this boy that he studied hard, became a great person, and helped many beings. This movie did not finish the job, so a bad smell appears! Same as that. If the filmmakers only want to make a happy ending, that's not clear. Why spend the whole movie to find this dead teacher, and then this teacher ends up with his parents again? Same with the young Nepali boy and girl, who were also chosen as teachers. The movie would have been complete if it showed them practicing hard, getting enlightenment, and helping other people. But why finish this movie before that? If you finish the movie before that, it does not connect to the Buddha's life. It does not show Buddhism is about teaching other people today. So it's not complete -- not clear teaching.

Little Buddha

Little Buddha is an enjoyable, at times powerful, and ultimately highly entertaining movie. Of course, there are quite a few movies today that can also be called entertaining, but they often achieve this with a combination of sex, violence and (admittedly) amazing special effects. It is rare to see a movie essentially devoid of such things that not only does entertain you, but also uplifts your spirit and leaves you with a positive feeling. For me, Little Buddha is also such a movie.

The story begins in modern-day Tibet, where a certain Buddhist priest or "lama" begins to see signs that his beloved teacher, who had died several years before, may have recently been reincarnated. The lama travels from Tibet to Seattle to locate a young Caucasian boy thought to be one of the possible "candidates" (he later discovers 2 others). The lama meets the boy, who does indeed appear to have certain traits that the lama's teacher had. The two develop a friendship and soon, the lama begins to relate to him the story of the birth of Buddhism, and of the young prince named Siddhartha who came to be called Buddha.

As the lama begins to tell the story, the scene switches to ancient Nepal, and shows young Siddhartha (played by the handsome Keanu Reeves), living a carefree life in the palace. His father, King Suddhodana, is shielding him from all "unpleasantries" such as elderly , sick or dying people. Gradually however, Siddhartha begins to get curious about the world "out there," and one day sneaks outside the palace gate. Buddhists will of course recognize this as the well-known story of the Four Gates. In one powerful scene, he encounters a funeral pyre and suddenly, as he watches the flames consume the body, the truth of impermanence - of his and of every one's ultimate demise - hits him, and brings him to tears. This scene, although undoubtedly one of the highlights, is only one of many memorable and well-acted scenes as the setting switches back and forth between ancient Nepal (the story of Buddha) and the contemporary search for the lama's teacher. Furthermore, the young children who play the candidates of the reincarnated teacher are all superb actors.

This movie will undoubtedly do a great deal to educate Americans about Buddhism. The "ancient" part of the story in particular is beautifully done, and portrays Buddhism as a compassionate teaching borne of Buddha's insight into the truth of impermanence. But perhaps even greater is a crucial point the movie implies, but doesn't actually state overtly. If Siddhartha had just stopped upon awakening to impermanence, he might have become a depressed, negative, complaining, or perhaps even suicidal person. Impermanence, after all, is not a comforting thought. Instead, the crucial point is that he also saw that suffering is universal - it wasn't just himself, but every living thing that must ultimately perish. The moment that Siddhartha sees this fundamental oneness of all life is eloquently portrayed in the movie. From this realization, his great compassion flowed, and he became the Buddha.

However, because the main focus of the "contemporary" part of the movie is the search for the reincarnation of the teacher, the implicit conclusion for the vast majority of Americans will probably be that "all Buddhists today believe in reincarnation." In this regard, the movie is somewhat misleading, as Buddhist sects such as our Jodo Shinshu do not believe in reincarnation. But what about Buddha himself? Did he believe in reincarnation?

In one sense, the answer might be self-evident in the funeral pyre scene. Siddhartha cries, as we do because, though we might grasp for such "comforting" alternatives as reincarnation or an afterlife, we can't deny the powerful, frightening and humbling finality of the body consumed in flames. In addition, there may be historical evidence that the Buddha did not believe in reincarnation, or in the presence of a "soul." The Buddha was something of a "radical" in that his teaching of the Dharma of impermanence went against the prevailing beliefs of his time, such as reincarnation, by saying that there was no such thing as a permanent soul or "atman." He said he only knew what he himself had experienced, which was impermanence, and that this was the reality we should awaken to in order to alleviate our suffering.

Thus, it is perhaps somewhat ironic that this movie, while implying that all contemporary Buddhists believe in reincarnation, also inadvertently exposes a what could be considered a discrepancy between Tibetan Buddhism--as represented by the lama's search for his reincarnated teacher--and what the Buddha himself taught. When the Buddha talked about impermanence, it is apparent he was referring to an infinite power, one which--as illustrated in the funeral pyre scene--had brought him to tears. If, however, our death is but a temporary state from which we return again and again, the powerful, compelling, and even frightening finality of death is softened. However, in pointing this out, I am not criticizing Tibetan Buddhism. Tibetan Buddhism is a rich and precious Buddhist tradition, due in large part to the influence of certain indigenous Tibetan cultural traditions on the Buddhism that was introduced to Tibet. Tibetan Buddhism is also very unique, due most likely to its geographic isolation.

However, as I reflect on the powerful depiction in this movie of Siddartha's transformation into the Buddha under the bodhi tree, it seems clear that the powerful force responsible for shaking Siddhartha up and humbling him was none other than the unforgiving truth of impermanence. Every living thing must change and ultimately perish. This of course is a disturbing and negative truth. However, this powerful negative truth was transformed into an equally powerful positive one when he realized that not just he, but that also all living things, even plants and insects, were all suffering from and bound by this same truth. Ultimately, he saw that all life is one. I believe the Buddha's great compassion developed out of this awareness of universal suffering. In Little Buddha, this truth, though perhaps somewhat obscured by the search for the reincarnated teacher, is nonetheless powerfully and unforgettably portrayed. I highly recommend that you see this movie.

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Seven Years in Tibet
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[1] Tibetan religion and culture are experiencing an unparalleled popularity. Tibetan Buddhism and Tibetan history are commonly the subjects of Hollywood films. Being in the American spotlight, however, means being subject to the sound byte culture in which we live. Quick quotables, rapid montages of images, and the crafting of simple stories are commonplace as the manners in which media consumers in America are accustomed to receiving information both in contexts of fictional entertainment and nonfictional news. Simplified, deceptive constructions of Tibet permeate our culture. To what ends are such presentations crafted? Why is the American public so accepting of these new craftings, and why do we now fall prey to the orientalism of the past and salvage paradigms refuted by post-colonial scholarship decades ago? To begin to answer these questions, this paper will: first, examine new age orientalism in the case of Tibet as Tibetologist Donald Lopez characterizes it; second, explore orientalist themes in the commercialization of Tibetan Buddhism in the American films Seven Years in Tibet, Kundun and Little Buddha; and third, offer an explication based on a psychological model of the commercial creators of such popularizations and the American society which consumes them.

[2] We are not the first to witness crafted presentations of Tibetan culture. James Hilton's Lost Horizon was first published in 1933 at a time of violent upheaval in the Western world. The extreme popularity of the novel and subsequent film of 1936 indicates a wish existing among the people at that time: it is no surprise that a down-spiraling civilization faced with its own horrors and impending world war would embrace a story of an idyllic, utopian civilization peacefully hidden among the Himalayas, where both social and physical ills were nonexistent and where eternally youthful citizens knew nothing of the waste brought on by violence. This civilization was Hilton's Shangri-La, a fictional land reflecting Hilton's understanding of the Tibetan Shambhala as a mysterious nation of esoteric people who occupy a "hidden" region on the highest plateau in the world. Now, in the last decade of our century, we again see the fantasy land of Shangri-La and nostalgia for a lost culture making popular appearances, this time not in the context of a Western world war, but amidst the near-extinction of Tibetan culture itself. Films focusing on Tibetan culture and history such as Little Buddha, Seven Years in Tibet and Kundun provide movie-goers with Shangri-La. We are shown perfect Tibetan heroes and despicable Chinese villains. The lamas, Tibetan Buddhist monks, often are portrayed as beatifically smiling, superhuman beings. And the Westerners featured in our popular stories are inevitably depicted as authority figures, heroically rescuing the doomed culture of Tibet. To what wish in ourselves do these phenomena speak today?

[3] Orientalism is defined briefly as Western distortions, purposeful or not, of Eastern traditions and culture, distortions which ultimately can be patronizing or damaging to the studied cultures. In the field of religion, orientalism often is considered a dead topic, its scholarly perpetrators, inaccurate portrayals and gross generalizations having been denounced starting decades ago in post-colonial scholarship. In "New Age Orientalism: The Case of Tibet" written for Tibetan Review in May, 1994, renowned Tibetologist Donald Lopez, however, recognizes persisting elements of orientalism in the field and describes what he calls "new age orientalism" in Tibetology (16-20). In order to identify in contemporary American film the new age orientalism of which Lopez speaks, Lopez's four clearly defined characteristics of orientalism in scholarly writings are essential. First is the classic orientalist play of opposites, in which Tibet and Tibetan Buddhism, emerging as objects of European and American fantasy, are treated as polluted, derivative and even demonic in opposition to an original root tradition, in this case the ancient Sanskrit texts of India, pure, pristine, authentic and holy. Western scholars projected the West's own past history onto these objects of study, thus setting up the Indian past as something to be recovered and salvaged as valuable to the West. The East's past was assumed to represent a pristine version of the West, resulting in what James Clifford and Edward Said identify as "nostalgia for ourselves." This play of opposites still operates in new age orientalism; the positions, however, are changed, creating anew the fantasy land of Shangri-La. Tibet becomes the perfect civilization, pristine, timeless, harmonious and holy as the home of true Buddhism and a true utopia. The Tibetan people become superhuman, perfect citizens under a perfect leader. The new opposition becomes China the invader, godless and demonic, despotic and polluted. Chinese soldiers become subhuman murderers following the orders of subhuman leaders. The rescue roles are still in place, as well. However, this time the contemporary goal is not the rescue of the East for the West, but the rescue of Tibet from China, the East from the East.

[4] The second of Lopez's characteristics of orientalism in the case of Tibet is the self-aggrandizing of the rescuers. The Tibetans themselves become voiceless non-agents in their own struggle for independence or survival. Instead, the Western rescuers are allowed to be the heroes of the Tibetan cause, edifying the American self-portrait as one of a strong, moral champion nation in which equality and justice are forever upheld. As this portrait raises western heroes, it damagingly lowers the Tibetans to a position of monopolized voicelessness.

[5] Aggrandizement of the rescuers facilitates the third and fourth of Lopez's characteristics for orientalism; third is the gaining of authority or control over Tibet, and fourth is the justification of that authority. The orientalist at once transforms the Tibetan people into non-agents and points to their non-agency as justification for taking control. In general terms, this means control over Tibetan culture, religion, art, and history as areas of academic study and of philanthropic preservation and control over Tibetan survival in exile. Yet this process is not limited to academe and philanthropy. Examples of new age orientalism pervade contemporary American films in which Tibetan history, images of Tibet, and the Tibetan people are scrutinized and utilized. Let us now turn to the most visible and popular of these films, Seven Years in Tibet, Kundun and Little Buddha.

[6] All of Lopez's characteristics of new age orientalism are found in recent feature films focusing on Tibetan religion and history. American films are perfect mediums through which to project, both literally and psychologically, the orientalist play of opposites, rescue paradigm, Western authority over the East, and the justification of that authority. 1997's Seven Years in Tibet1 recounts of the story of Heinrich Harrer's years in Tibet and actually parallels the history of Tibet-focused orientalism. When Harrer first enters the country, he exhibits the behavior of an authoritative father to the Tibetans' childlike state. Tibetans are depicted as innocent primitives without social graces, education or guile. They stick out their tongues at the outsider Harrer, as children on a playground might taunt a new classmate. The audience laughs at their lack of technology, automobiles, and especially movie theaters. Harrer is an arrogant Aryan, barely tolerant of having to exist in this primitive society, his only other option the Indian prison from which he just escaped. The play of opposites here is that of classic orientalism: Tibet is scorned as only an intermediate means to salvation for the West, in Harrer's case, as a temporary hindrance to finding final escape back to Austria. As the story progresses, Harrer takes control and seemingly teaches the Tibetans all they need to know: he befriends the boy Dalai Lama and becomes his educator, teaching him about the outside world and the wonders and wars it holds. The audience later discovers that Harrer's teachings are vital for the regent's preparation against the Chinese invasion. For short periods of time, he rescues the Dalai Lama from the confines of the Lhasa Potala and the primitive religion that has imprisoned him there. And, yes, Harrer even builds him a movie theater.

[7] Harrer, however, is later humbled. The psychological play unfolding in the character of Harrer revolves around his abandonment of his child, a son he does not know. China's invasion of Tibet and Tibet's struggle to survive are only the backdrops for the main events of Harrer's emotional evolution and his return to Europe. Harrer is humbled when the play of opposites suddenly changes: in the turning point of the film, the boy Dalai Lama recognizes the Westerner's longing to see in him his abandoned son. Harrer is told that he was never a father, nor will he ever be a father to him. Harrer is reduced to tears by the boy's words, his vulnerable, childlike state now overseen by Tibetan authority and control, embodied in the young Tibetan ruler and exemplified in his very adult speech. Harrer's inner scars, exposed by the boy regent, begin to be healed. Here, Tibet becomes the exalted, valuable culture in contrast to the murderous, demonic China. The Westerner who has played his part in the defense of pristine Tibet is cured of his emotional ills by Tibet's wisdom and can now return a whole man to his own life in Europe. And we, the audience, have experienced one Westerner's rescue of Tibetan culture, now immortally archived in written text and Technicolor.

[8] Consider Martin Scorsese's Kundun2 a depiction of the Fourteenth Dalai Lama's discovery, installment, and eventual flight to India after the Chinese invasion. Scorsese's film is, uncharacteristically for Scorsese, respectful of the religious and political institutions it depicts. As Philadelphia film critic Cindy Fuchs writes:

Where most previous Scorsese films took dead aim at various social and religious institutions, expectations or rituals, Kundun's attitude is absolutely un-ironic: the Dalai Lama is good, the Chinese are bad, the spiritual life is unfathomable, and the material life is fraught with peril.3

[9] The most ironic and pessimistic of directors has succumbed to the fantasy of utopian Tibet and her perfect leader. He even depicts the rats in the Potala as cute, even though the Dalai Lama remembered them as frightening in his autobiography on which the original Kundun script was based. Scorsese pans sweeping landscapes to the meditative music of Philip Glass; the characters quote Buddhist texts, often incomprehensible to American, non-Buddhist audiences. Scorsese shows us a faceless China, her waves of soldiers led by a Mao played with a creepy villainy bordering on pedophilia toward the young Dalai Lama and his innocent nation. Protagonists and antagonists, good guys and villains, are firmly established. He depicts the Dalai Lama as a perfect being, echoing the orientalist's projection of the superhuman, that is, perfect citizens under a perfect leader. The Tibetan people generally recognize the Dalai Lama as an incarnation of Avalokiteshvara, a perfected being compassionately returning again and again to lead the Tibetan people, but Scorsese's depiction of the regent is still troubling to K. Togden, a Tibetan monk living in San Francisco. Consider this excerpt from Togden's letter to the quarterly magazine Tricycle, The Buddhist Review.

[10] Like the Fourteenth Dalai Lama, I am a Buddhist monk who likes movies. I am also a practitioner of the deity Dorje Shugden, banned by His Holiness in 1996. I believe Hollywood's mythification of Tibet is influencing Westerners' views and attitudes toward this ban... What we are getting with Kundun is a perfectly pre-packaged image for Western consumption, presumably to advance the Tibetan cause... But now there is something of even greater concern happening as dharma practitioners are blinded by this image of His Holiness the Dalai Lama as god-king, the infallible savior, the last hope. This is a far cry from Buddha's advice to discriminating wisdom as our guiding light. As demonstrated by history, the consequences of such blind faith are disastrous, especially when placed upon someone who is a political leader.4

[11] This Tibetan Buddhist monk, fired by the current Dorje Shugden debate, calls for "discriminating wisdom" to end the unrealistic portrayals of both Tibet and her leader in Hollywood, portrayals which affect everyone, including established dharma practitioners. In an attempt to bring levity to this complaint, the editors of Tricycle placed this letter under the heading, "Dalaiwood." Togden's complaint is a serious one, however. The initial motivation of the filmmakers, he presumes, is to aid in the Tibetan cause, perhaps to raise awareness about human rights abuses against the Tibetans. But Togden warns against the idealizations the filmmakers rely upon because of the eventual damage they cause. They misrepresent their subject matter in order to fit the desires of audiences, and they further warp audiences' sensibilities regarding the reality of the subject matter. Togden's letter continues:

...as William Ellison correctly pointed out in your Winter 1997 issue, "pragmatic exiles and scholars tell us that the Real Tibet is gone, that it's too late for Hollywood to save Tibet, that the Chinese devastation is irreversible." In fact, the "Tibetan cause" as presented to us is much like the Titanic, doomed from the beginning...audiences are enjoying Titanic -- I believe much more than they will Kundun. Although Titanic contains a lot of fantasy and romance, it is much more honest..the movies about Tibet are not honest -- they purposely create a make-believe reality. If we fall for it, we know we are going to be disappointed in the end, sooner or later. Such sufferings arise from attachment and ignorance; the law of karma taught by Buddha is unforgiving and relentless.

[12] The romanticization Togden recognizes is ultimately disappointing to people and defeating to any Tibetan cause that originally may have motivated the filmmakers. Filmmakers can market a portrayal of the Dalai Lama as perfect because audiences crave this portrayal. As journalist Pico Iyer once quipped, "Buddhism is caught between a halo and a light bulb...Will pop culture drag down Buddhism before Buddhism can raise up pop culture?" 5

[13] Will sensibilities change? Tibet may lose its place between our imposed fantasy of a lost utopia and the spotlight of Hollywood; the public American marketers rely upon now may move onto what the public sees as the next fad. Perhaps a new play of opposites elsewhere in the world will win the people's hearts and replace the old, tired play of opposites between China and Tibet. The true horrors of history become film mythology, a passing interest on movie screens and CNN's Hollywood Minute. In the cases of both Seven Years in Tibet and Kundun, the horrors of the Chinese invasion of Tibet nearly did not make it onto film at all. China did not allow filming in Tibet or the Himalayas and released a list of Hollywood influentials banned from China. Included in the list were the films' screenwriters, stars and directors. Not helping matters was Disney's president, Michael Eisner who, in response to China's threat of boycotting Disney because of the production Kundun, attempted to smooth things over by likening China's treatment of Tibet to the United States' treatment of Alaska.6 Togden's Buddhist warnings of karmic law in such matters of blurring reality for one's own short term goals are grounded, and his final plea is moving: "But this isn't another Hollywood movie. This is our reality, and it demands from us our commitment to freedom rather than to fantasy."

[14] If we delve further into our American mythological ideals, we do find the attempt to rescue Tibetan culture heroic. It is this one, classic ideal of America as the land of the free, and as the land of the strong willing to fight in order to free the world from injustice, that is most evident in American activism surrounding the Tibetan cause. As Lopez points out, rescuers also become authority: in their roles as heroes, they assume control in order to be effective. With this control, however, comes an appropriation of the culture being saved, reflected in the selective salvaging of artifacts and texts the authoritative rescuer has deemed worthy of being saved. And part of this control is the crafting of history to suit one's own goals and to motivate others. As we have seen, Hollywood's expert story-tellers sculpt the Tibetan story to fit specific expectations and agendas of American pop culture.

[15] Little Buddha,7 starring Keanu Reeves as Gautama himself, offers another story of Western rescuers, this time in the form of a white, upper middle class, nuclear family. The film alternates between the story of Gautama Buddha's life in the sixth century, B.C.E., and the story of a contemporary west coast family whose small son is recognized by Tibetan monks living in the United States as the possible reincarnation of an important lama. As Reeves acts out the sometimes supernatural trials and victories of the Buddha, the small boy's parents make the difficult decision to let their son go abroad to take part in a foreign, distant Buddhist world. With their decision, and the boy's agreement, the Tibetan lama may be restored to his pupils who have waited years for his return. The story, however, ends not with the American boy being installed in the position. Other children from the distant Buddhist world win out in the reincarnation competition. The boy returns to his west coast home. This ending does not correspond with the rest of the film's drama. The audience is pulled into carefully crafted, rising suspense, only to be told that the boy is actually not the incarnated lama. The notable lack of an effective denouement is indicative of the limits of our American fantasy of Shangri-La: Tibet as a distant, fantasy utopia is only a place in which to escape for a short time, and it is a place which must be kept distant for the fantasy to perpetuate. We like the idea of a Shangri-La that can provide a space where incarnations and magical events, such as those of the Buddha's life story, can exist, and we like to dream of that space, but we are not so open to staying there. It is nice to visit a nonmaterialist culture of selflessness, but it is nicer to return home to our comfortable luxuries and familiar individualism.

[16] For proof of this selective acceptance of Tibetan Buddhism, consider a recent Oprah Winfrey interview with Carolyn Massey, the Seattle mother who gave up her son as the incarnation of a lama.8 Massey, a Tibetan Buddhist herself, lives in Seattle while her six year old son lives in a Nepalese monastery. This separation of mother and child is common to Tibetan monastery life, in which children installed as reborn teachers live an austere life of study from a very early age. While American audiences romanticize this life when Tibetans are the subjects, as in Kundun or Seven Years..., they flinch at it when the subject becomes an American child. Massey, even with the support of Winfrey, who continually called for open mindedness from her audience, was met with an onslaught of irate audience members, voicing their horror at Massey's "irresponsibility" and "lack of love and support" for her son. Massey's sister spoke angrily about her conversion from Catholicism and her "cop out" from motherhood. Others during the hour chastised Massey for her distance from her son, with one person asking, "Why can't she move there and be with her son and give up her American materialism, too?" Our zeal for Tibet, or for our preconception of it, then, is not unlimited. Giving up materialism is a virtue we enjoy seeing in Tibetan culture, even one that satisfies or renews us, but is not one we approve of for ourselves. To toy with the idea of a nonmateralist culture is romantic and entertaining. To act upon this idea for ourselves, however, is downright un-American.

[17] Thus far we have discussed the variations on the themes and usages of the Shangri-La fantasy in America. We have analyzed the details of these usages and the general reasons behind their popularity in American film. I would like to offer a psychological model to aid in explaining the main root of our fascination with Tibet, a root that lies deeper within our psyche as a nation. If Westerners in 1933 embraced Hilton's Shangri-La to escape from the horrors of world war, for what similar ill do we seek a cure in the 1990's? Hilton's contemporaries suffered feelings of helplessness amidst escalating violence. This was the root of their fascination with Tibet. We just as adeptly project our needs onto Tibetan culture today. And we enjoy those projections as they are, in turn, reappropriated in the commercial media. America is a nation founded on oppression. And here at the end of the millennium, we still have not faced the horrors of our origins. Racism continues to thrive. Internal violence continues to threaten our own peace. We are paralyzed by our inability to fix or even face honestly our own genocidal history. We want not to be the culture of oppression our history makes us; we want to be the liberators our ideals guide us to be. To avoid the darker realities of our national culture, we seek those things which would allow us not only to escape those realities but to surmount them, as well.

[18] It is fitting, then, that we as a nation and culture turn our attentions to the other side of the world, to the racism, oppression and genocide contained in Tibet.9 Whereas our racisms are entangled in layers upon layers of our pluralistic society, theirs is perfectly identifiable: Chinese against Tibetan. If we doubt that, we need only to go to the movie theater to see the Tibetan Shangri-La, a perfect civilization where everyone is, or was, equal, and where the Chinese now create inequality. It is not enough for truth to motivate us to concern. We crave the romanticized exaggerations we see in popular films. Only the underdog will capture our hearts, and the villain's actions had better make a good plotline.10 Constructed versions of Tibetan history and culture are by-products of the Western gaze on Tibet now. As we turn our eyes to the Tibetan situation, we project the fantasies, simplifications, and desires for our own perfectibility onto the people and history we find. And our master story-tellers sculpt truth to fit the roles we demand to see. Americans may subconsciously believe it is too late to solve our own problems, but we still hold our place as a country symbolizing equality and justice. Like religious practitioners setting out on a pilgrimage for renewal in belief, we set out for the movie theater to renew ourselves. America is not an underdog, but we identify with those who are. America is not a land of equality, but we do seek equality and justice for all.

[19] There is an irony at the very root of our fascination: we turn to Tibet because we have no hope for our own situation, yet we depict Tibet as a civilization hopelessly lost. Our constructed Shangri-La turns us away even as we approach it. And as in the case of Carolyn Massey's son, we turn away when Shangri-La gets too close to us. Tibet's tragic situation becomes another passing fad as our morality plays about Shangri-La only allow us to see a Tibet in which intervention is impossible. Americans are left with only popular mythologies and new fads. We defeat both ourselves and Tibet.

1. Seven Years in Tibet, dir. Jean-Jacques Annaud, with Brad Pitt and Jamyang Wangchuk, Columbia TriStar Pictures, 1997.

2. Kundun, dir. Martin Scorsese, with Jamyang Kunga Tenzin, Touchstone Pictures, 1997.

3. Cindy Fuchs, "Movie Shorts: Kundun," Philadelphia City Paper, 16 january 1998, 65.

4. K. Togden, letter, Tricycle: The Buddhist Review, VII, 3 (Spring 1998): 8.

5. Pico Iyer, Panel discussion: "Zen Buddhism and Popular Culture," Asia Society, New York City, 19 November 1997.

6"Dreams of Tibet," narr. Orville Schell, Documentary Consortium of public television stations, Frontline, PBS, 1997.

7Little Buddha, dir. Bernardo Bertolucci, with Keanu Reeves and Chris Isaak, Miramax Films, 1994.

8"The Boy on the Throne," prod. Dianne Atkinson Hudson, Oprah, Harpo Productions, ABC, 17 March 1998.

9The timeliness of our fascination may also be a point of interest. The Dalai Lama's recent Nobel Peace Prize certainly resulted in more media attention for the Tibetan situation. Within American popular culture, however, the celebrity culture surrounding Tibet activism may be the main source of public attention. Actors Richard Gere, Harrison Ford and Steven Segal and musicians Philip Glass, Patti Smith and Adam Yauch are especially supportive and vocal about the Tibetan cause and Tibetan Buddhism. It is ironic that the celebrity culture, a generally egoistic segment of America, has latched onto ego-denying Tibetan Buddhism. Celebrities at once raise awareness about and associate themselves with Tibetan egolessness and nonmaterialism while remaining within their own narcissistic and materialist professional institution.

10Actor and co-founder of Tibet House New York, Richard Gere, provides an example of the characterization of a political situation in fictionalizing terminology. In a recent interview, he urged China to have "confidence to open up to video cameras" ("Dreams of Tibet," narr. Orville Schell, Documentary Consortium of public television stations, Frontline, PBS, 1997.). Gere uses an actor's individual psychological language to articulate an honesty he sees as a solution to a nation's political problem: as an actor must be honest in front of commercial cameras, so should China be in front of news cameras. Great political and human rights issues across international boundaries are translated into easily digestible Hollywood-speak

SEVEN YEARS IN TIBET:Discussion with Lhakpa Tsamchoe

TIBET HAS REPRESENTED many things to the West: a remote and forbidden land,
an exotic region of magic and mystery, and a source of spiritual wisdom and
insight. In recent months, Hollywood has brought images of Tibet to
American consciousness through two major movies. Seven Years in Tibet,
directed by Jean-Jacques Annaud, is based on the adventures of Austrian
mountain climber Heinrich Harrer in the 1940s. Kundun, directed by Martin
Scorsese, is about the early life of Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama.
(Kundun, which means "presence," is a title of respect used for the Dalai
Lama.) Both movies include images of traditional Tibetan life and also of
China's invasion and oppressive rule of Tibet.

Many Americans, from Hollywood actor Richard Gere to conservative
Republicans in Congress, have recently protested the. treatment of Tibet by
the Chinese government and demanded a stronger U.S. response. Last year,
when Chinese president Jiang Zemin was honored at a state dinner at the
White House, a "stateless dinner" was held in Washington, D.C., to
commemorate the sufferings of Tibetans at the hands of the Chinese.

Understanding Tibet, however, has proved difficult because of its remote
location and its distinctive history, customs and religion. Tibetans even
have difficulty communicating with other Buddhists. Some years ago, a
leading Tibetan Buddhist teacher, Kalu Rimpoche, met with Korean Zen master
Seung Sahn for dharma combat--an encounter that tests and challenges each
master's understanding of Buddhist teaching. As the Tibetan lame sat
fingering his prayer beads and murmuring a mantra, the younger Korean Zen
master began the exchange by reaching inside his robe, drawing out an
orange and holding it up. In a defiant and challenging tone, he asked,
"What is this?"

It was a classic Zen question, and Seung Sahn waited to pounce on any
response that would betray ignorance. The Tibetan simply sat quietly
without saying anything in reply. Seung Sahn moved closer, held the orange
under the lame's nose and repeated his question: "What is this?" Kalu
Rimpoche bent over to discuss the situation with his translator. The two
Tibetans talked for several minutes, then the translator spoke to everyone
in the room: "Rimpoche says, `What is the matter with him? Don't they have
oranges where he comes from?"' The dharma combat went no further.

For centuries, Western images of Tibet have stressed the exotic and
incredible. Medieval Christians like Odoric of Pordenone, William of
Rubruck and Marco Polo brought back reports of Tibetans' magical powers and
strange customs. Some 19th-century Europeans believed that Tibet was the
homeland of the Padaeans who, Herodotus reported, lived east of India and
had the custom of eating their dead.

More recently, in Magic and Mystery in Tibet (1929), Parisian-born scholar
Alexandra David-Neel recounted her experiences in Tibet at the beginning of
the 20th century. She told of Tibetan monks who could survive in freezing
temperatures with little or no clothing, who could float on air or walk
over water, become invisible at will, send messages across large distances
by telepathy, and choose to die by dissolving their bodies at will, leaving
no trace behind. David-Neel reported that when the Tashi Lama departed from
the city of Shigatse he allegedly left behind a "phantom perfectly
resembling him who played his part so thoroughly and naturally that every
one who saw him was deceived. When the lame was safe beyond the border, the
phantom vanished."

David-Neel claimed to have learned the skill of magical formation herself.
She created the image of a monk who was her servant, visible to herself and
sometimes to others. He would perform various actions for her, and he would
occasionally touch her shoulder. As her relationship with the phantom
developed, he underwent changes in appearance and behavior, eventually
escaping the control of his creator.

At length, David-Neel decided to dissolve the phantom, but this required
six months of difficult struggle. "My mind-creature was tenacious of life,"
she later reflected. "There is nothing strange in the fact that I may have
created my own hallucination. The interesting point is that in these cases
of materialization, others see the thought forms that have been created."
When I was in Tibet in 1988, a Tibetan tour guide affirmed that the stories
of such monastic feats were historically true, but lamented that Tibetan
monks today are not as strong as those of earlier days.

Western visitors to Tibet from the 17th through the 20th centuries were
most impressed by the humanity of the Tibetan people--their kind and gentle
spirit, their cheerful demeanor, their generosity to travelers and above
all their devotion to Buddhist practice. Jesuit missionary Ippolito
Desideri, who lived in Lhasa from 1716 to 1721, immersed himself in the
study of Tibet's language and religious customs. He was deeply impressed by
the practice of Tibetan Buddhism, contrasting it with the lesser devotion
of Christians; and he mourned that he himself had not been able to follow
Jesus as faithfully as the Tibetans served their leader. Desideri learned
Tibetan well enough to present learned arguments against Buddhist
teachings. His writings were read with great interest and admiration by the
people of Lhasa--without, however, leading to many conversions.

The most prominent image of Tibet in Western consciousness today is the
smiling face of Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama, whose life is one of
the most dramatic of the 12th century. The position of the Dalai Lama is
not hereditary but depends upon the identification of a new incarnation in
a young boy, usually about two years old, often from a simple family. The
Dalai Lama is viewed as the reincarnation of the Bodhisattva,
Avalokiteshvara, also known in Tibet as Chenrezi. In the Buddhist tradition
a Bodhisattva is an enlightened being who defers entrance into nirvana and
returns to earth to help suffering beings attain enlightenment.

The institution began in 1578, when Sonam Gyatso converted Mongol ruler
Altan Khan to Buddhism and accepted the title of Dalai Lama ("Broad Ocean"
in Mongolian). Because Sonam Gyatso was already seen as the reincarnation
of two earlier leaders, he became known as the Third Dalai Lama. Originally
the title implied only a spiritual authority, but in the mid-17th century
the Fifth Dalai Lama became the temporal ruler of Tibet, uniting spiritual
and political responsibilities and reorganizing the government structures.

His successors, however, were not of the same stature. The Sixth Dalai Lama
was a libertine and a poet. The Manchu rulers of China attempted to depose
him and appoint another Dalai Lama, but this move was overwhelmingly
rejected by the Tibetan people. At the age of 24 or 25, the Sixth Dalai
Lama was taken on a journey to China. He died en route amid suspicions of
Chinese treachery, and the Chinese emperor ordered that his body be
disgraced.

The institution continued to face many challenges. From the early 18th to
the late 19th century, no Dalai Lama emerged as a ruler. Several died
young, either before their accession to power at age 18 or soon thereafter.
The regents were often suspected of killing the young leaders in order to
preserve their own power.

The 13th Dalai Lama survived an attempt on his life and became a forceful
leader who restored Tibet's independence in 1912. He worked to open Tibet
to the outside world, fostering close ties to the British Empire, founding
English schools in Lhasa and Gyantse in the 1920s, introducing electricity
and telegraph lines and sending Tibetans abroad for studies. He launched
reforms in land use and taxes and sought to place limits on the most
powerful monasteries.

In 1931 he warned his compatriots of the coming danger of communism: "It
will not be long before we find the red onslaught at our own front door. It
is only a matter of time before we come into a direct confrontation with
it, either from within our own ranks or else as a threat from an external
nation. And when that happens we must be ready to defend ourselves.
Otherwise our spiritual and cultural conditions will be completely
eradicated." The 13th Dalai Lama died at the age of 58 in 1933.

After the death of their leader, Tibetans looked for signs as to where the
new leader would be born. The Panchen Lama, the second most important
leader of Tibetan Buddhism and a critical authority for recognizing the
reincarnation of the Dalai Lama, identified three boys as likely
candidates. To identify a reincarnation, search parties traditionally test
the young boys by presenting them with various objects, including some
which belonged to the earlier Dalai Lama. If a boy can consistently
recognize the objects that belonged to the late Dalai Lama, this is a
strong indication that he is the reincarnation. A candidates should also be
able to recognize people who were familiar to the deceased Dalai Lama.

THE MOVIE Kundun presents the recognition of the 14th Dalai Lama and
follows the events of his early life as recounted in his autobiography and
other sources. In 1937, a search party entered a home in Takster, a village
in northeastern Tibet, a region then ruled by a Muslim governor and
nominally part of China. A two-year-old boy named Lhamo Dhondup asked for a
rosary worn by a monk who was dressed as a servant in the search party. The
"servant" told the boy he could have the rosary, which had belonged to the
13th Dalai Lama, if the boy knew who the man wearing it was. The young boy
replied correctly that the man was a lame of the Sera monastery.

Lhamo Dhondup also knew the name of the monk who was pretending to be the
master of the search party and the name of the real servant in the search
party. Later on, the boy was presented with several pairs of objects; one
of each pair had belonged to the 13th Dalai Lama. The boy correctly claimed
those objects that had belonged to the late leader and was able to speak
the refined dialect spoken at the court in Lhasa. One of the state oracles
affirmed that Lhamo Dhondup was indeed the 14th Dalai Lama.

As Kundun shows, the boy, who would be renamed Tenzin Gyatso, was taken at
the age of four to live in the Potala Palace, the great residence built by
the Fifth Dalai Lama in Lhasa. What impressed British observers such as Sir
Charles Bell and Hugh Richardson was that the young boy adapted easily to
his new role and home. During the long ceremony of homage, the boy's
attention did not flag. Tenzin Gyatso was given a rigorous course of
instruction in Tibetan Buddhist teachings, but he lived an isolated life.
His mother, known as "The Great Mother," could visit him freely but was not
allowed to spend the night at the Potala Palace.

Regent and senior tutor Reting Rimpoche and his allies were corrupt,
seeking personal profit more than the good of Tibet. Kundun includes the
story of how Reting was forced to resign before administering the vow of
celibacy to the Dalai Lama because Tibetans feared that someone who was not
observing the vow could not validly administer it to someone else.

In 1947 Reting was implicated in an antigovernment plot that was supported
by monks from the Sera Monastery; he died under mysterious circumstances in
the dungeons of the Potala Palace. In fighting at the Sera monastery, 200
monks were killed by government troops.

Tibet in the 1940s was extremely isolated. It had no modern roads or
bridges, so access was difficult. Tibet had closed its doors to the outside
world in 1792, and the 13th Dalai Lama had not sought to join the League of
Nations or to obtain widespread international recognition of the
independence of Tibet. As both Kundun and Seven Years indicate, the young
14th Dalai Lama was very curious about the outside world and loved to look
out on his people and his city through a telescope. In 1943, Heinrich
Harrer escaped from a British internment camp in India and fled into Tibet.
After many difficulties, recounted in his memoir Seven Years in Tibet,
Harrer and companion Peter Aufschmaiter reached Lhasa and were given
asylum. Harrer became a friend to the Dalai Lama's brother Lobsang Samten,
and then a companion and mentor to the young Dalai Lama.

Like many foreign observers, Harrer was struck by the gentleness and
peacefulness of Tibetan life, and wondered about the so-called advantages
of Western civilization: "Here no one is made to lose face, and
aggressiveness is unknown. Even political enemies treat each other with
consideration and politeness, and greet each other cordially when they meet
in the street." The repeated intrigues at court, however, indicate that not
everyone was as benign as Harrer remembered.

SINCE imperial times, Chinese governments had had pretensions of authority
over Tibet, but they had never exercised long-term governmental control
over the region. Tibetans viewed themselves as an independent nation, while
the Chinese viewed the region as part of the Chinese empire. On October 7,
1950, the Chinese invaded Tibet from the east and northwest and quickly
crushed organized resistance. Both movies dramatically portray how the
poorly equipped Tibetan army of 8,500 soldiers could hardly withstand the
onslaught of Chinese veterans who had fought both Japanese and Chinese
armies for years. In this time of national crisis, there was a widespread
demand for the young Dalai Lama to assume full responsibilities for the
nation even though he was not yet of age. Thus Tenzin Gyatso was invested
with full authority as the 14th Dalai Lama in 1950 when he was 15 years
old. Seven Years in Tibet concludes with the ceremony of the investiture of
the Dalai Lama and the departure of Harrer.

At the recommendation of his ministers, the Dalai Lama withdrew to a
monastery near the Indian border. Some months later Tibetan representative
Ngapo Ngawang Jigme went beyond his delegated authority and signed an
accord with the Chinese in Beijing. The Seventeen-Point Agreement of May
23, 1951, which was eventually accepted by the Dalai Lama, stated that
Tibet was part of China, but promised: "the central authorities [of the
Chinese People's Government] will not alter the existing political system
in Tibet. The central authorities also will not alter the established
status, functions and powers of the Dalai Lama." It also promised that "the
religious beliefs, customs and habits of the Tibetan people shall be
respected and lame monasteries shall be protected." These promises were not
kept.

Under the pretense of "liberating" Tibet from allegedly oppressive feudal
and monastic rule, the Chinese government confiscated land and goods,
imprisoned upper-class families and forced the population into near
starvation by demanding food, gold and silver for the maintenance of
Chinese soldiers.

In an effort to destroy Tibetan Buddhism, Chinese authorities ordered
religious leaders to be humiliated, tortured and put to death. Chinese
troops and farmers settled in Tibet. Children were removed from their
families for indoctrination. When the Chinese found it difficult to destroy
the religious convictions of Tibetan children, they seized Tibetan babies
and took them to China to be trained as communists. Tibetans increasingly
took up arms against the Chinese forces, and by 1956 Tibetan guerrilla
forces were destroying roads and bridges and raiding supply posts.

In response, the Chinese tortured and killed more monks and lay Buddhists,
deported people from their homes and sent them to forced labor, and raped
many women. Monasteries were shelled and destroyed by Chinese troops.
Children were forced to abuse, beat or even shoot their own parents. In
villages where men had gone to fight with the guerrillas, women and
children were slaughtered by machine gun. The Chinese sterilized the men
and women of some villages. In 1958 they expelled many men from Lhasa, but
most of these joined the guerrilla forces in the mountains. In 1958, one
Chinese garrison of 1,000 men was wiped out; another garrison of 3,000
soldiers was destroyed.

Kundun presents selected images of the violence, often through the Dalai
Lama's visions or dreams. In one dramatic boom shot the Dalai Lama stands
in the middle of the bodies of slain monks. At first, only a few are
visible, but as the camera pulls away, a vast field of bloodstained bodies
fills the screen.

In 1959, when the Chinese invited the Dalai Lama to attend a performance in
the Chinese barracks without any bodyguards, most Tibetans suspected that
the Chinese intended to seize the Dalai Lama. Thousands surrounded the
summer palace to protect him. The Chinese moved artillery pieces within
range of the palace and on March 17, two shells fell into the grounds of
Norbu Lingka. The Dalai Lama was persuaded to flee the country. He left the
summer palace in disguise in the middle of the night. Tibetan guerrillas
escorted him along mountain trails to the Indian border, where he was
offered asylum (this is the concluding scene of Kundun).

He settled in Dharamsala, India, where he has since resided in exile. When
the Chinese realized that the Dalai Lama had fled, they abolished the
Tibetan government and established a military dictatorship. The Dalai Lama
appealed to the United Nations, insisting that Tibet was an independent
nation, but to no avail. The International Commission of Jurists, an
independent body supported by 30,000 lawyers from 50 countries, concluded
that Tibet was a sovereign nation and that the Chinese were committing
genocide by seeking to eliminate the Buddhists of Tibet.

THE SUFFERINGS of Tibet have continued. In the 1960s, during China's
Cultural Revolution, the Chinese destroyed 6,400 (or 99.9 percent) of the
monasteries in Tibet, according to the Dalai Lama's estimates. Chinese
occupation policies directly caused the deaths of approximately 1.2 million
people (out of a population of 6 million). China's order to replace barley
with wheat, combined with the confiscation of food for Chinese soldiers,
led to mass starvation in 1961. The Chinese arrested, tortured and killed
thousands of Tibetans who engaged in peaceful demonstrations and protests.
The Chinese government continues to settle large numbers of Chinese in
Tibet, and these settlers currently hold all positions of political,
cultural and economic power. The Tibetans live a marginalized existence in
their own land.

Despite the tremendous sufferings of his people, the Dalai Lama continues
to have a peaceful demeanor and resilient spirit. A Western reporter once
asked him how it could be that the Chinese had taken his land and his
people, had killed so many Tibetans, and yet the Dalai Lama was not angry
at them. The Dalai Lama acknowledged that the Chinese had indeed taken his
country's freedom and possessions and had taken the lives of many Tibetans.
But he posed his own question. "Why should I give them my mind as well?"

This principle is at the heart of Tibetanpracticed by the Dalai Lama
religious practice develops the mind so that we can live more peacefully
and happily ourselves and bring peace and happiness to others. Following a
basic principle of Shakyamuni Buddha, the Dalai Lama teaches that "all
pleasures and pains basically derive from the mind." Cultivating the mind
allows one to respond to anger with compassion and patience. "We regard
inner strength, gentleness, love, compassion, wisdom and a stable mind as
the most important treasures a human being can collect in his or her
lifetime." Genuine religious practice cultivates generosity, wisdom,
compassion, love and tolerance in the most difficult sufferings.

This principle also illumines the Dalai Lama's acceptance of the plurality
of the world's religions: "In this world, just as there are many medicines
for a particular disease, so there are many religious systems that serve as
methods for achieving happiness for all sentient beings, human and
otherwise. Though each of these systems has a different mode of practice
and a different mode of expression, I think that they are all similar in
that they improve the body, speech and mind of those who practice them, and
in that they all have good aims."

Tibetans have become a minority in their own land. Religious freedom and
freedom of speech are rigorously restricted. Any show of allegiance to the
Dalai Lama is harshly punished. The Dalai Lama calls for dialogue: "I am
not asking for the independence of Tibet. While Tibet was historically an
independent and separate nation from China, I am aware of the possibility
that in a changing world, a smaller community or nation could benefit by
being associated with a larger state. I do not want to debate history; I
want to look to the future. Concerns over military and foreign matters,
which I assume are high on the list of the Chinese, can be handled by
Beijing. What is essential is that the Tibetans have genuine self-rule."
The Dalai Lama has called for genuine democracy in Tibet and "for Tibet to
be gradually transformed into a zone of `Ahimsa,' a zone of nonconflict."

He has been recognized for his nonviolent struggle for his people and was
awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1989. The inspirations of his life are the
teachings of the Buddha and the witness of Mahatma Gandhi. In 1956, in the
middle of his struggles in Tibet, he traveled to India to celebrate the
anniversary of the Buddha and visited the place where Mahatma Gandhi's
remains were cremated. He reflected on the life and witness of this man,
"perhaps the greatest of our age," and resolved to "follow his lead
whatever difficulties might confront me. I determined more strongly than
ever that I could never associate myself with acts of violence." In a
century of mass murder and exile, of refugees without passports, perhaps
the greatest gift that Tibet has to give to the world is this witness of
nonviolent compassion, endurance and faithfulness amid horrible sufferings.

KUNDUN: Tenzin Thuthob Tsarong (l) plays the young Tenzin

KUNDUN: Tenzin Thuthob Tsarong (l) plays the young Tenzin Gyatso in Martin
Scorsese's film about the 14th Dalai Lama.

by Leo D. Lefebure

Leo D. Lefebure is professor of systematic theology at University of Saint
Mary of the Lake in Mundelein Illinois.

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PostPosted: Nov.15.09 4:49 am 
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Kundun
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Martin Scorsese's Kundun

an interview by Gavin Smith

The elusive search for peace, for equilibrium, has always been latent in the films of Martin Scorsese. But still, what does it mean for American cinema's de facto poet laureate of the street to make an "historical epic" about the spiritual coming of age and flight into exile of the young Dalai Lama after the invasion of feudal Tibet by communist China? Kundun, which takes its name from the Dalai Lama's formal title, surely originates in an impulse to get closer to the transcendental source, which in turn demands the embracing of an Otherness seemingly antithetical to the milieux and manners of urban America. In those terms Kundun is a worthy soulmate to Jean Renoir's The River, which also begins with a painted image from a tradition that offers a gateway to ancient religious wisdom. But while Scorsese's film has the same spirit of humanist grace and the same profoundly moving cumulative power as Renoir's, its extraordinary visualization and mesmerizing textures and patterns carry it into another realm of formal wonder --a uniquely metaphysical spectacle.

In some ways Kundun seems a companion piece to The Last Temptation of Christ: both films begin with the image of a sleeper awakening, both are about the emergence of dormant divinity in human guise, the protagonists of both films embark on transformative voyages of discovery. But where the Christ of Last Temptation trades in his low self-esteem for an exultant sense of revolutionary mission, the Buddha-child Dalai Lama of Kundun follows a reverse trajectory: from egocentric infant to selfless religious statesman.

Scorsese's films are almost always constructed around narcissistic protagonists who typically deny or defy reality in order to inhabit increasingly lonely, paranoid fantasies of supremacy and control, sustained by forces of both repression and anarchic violence. Either cut off from redeeming connection to community or oppressed by it, their self-defeat, breakdown, and entropy seem preordained. The disruptive, anguished Christ of Last Temptation descends remotely from this tradition. By contrast, Kundun's Dalai Lama is not so much outside this pattern as its benign negative or mirror image. In his splendid isolation, he's the very foundation of the world of the film, but his selfhood is the calm at the eye of the hurricane, propelled by curiosity and the getting of wisdom rather than some compulsive need for gratification and oblivion. What previous Scorsese protagonist has even had the option to follow the path to spiritual enlightenment? And enlightenment for Scorsese is envisioned, among other things, as Cinema itself: The Dalai Lama's visionary dream states, which manifest themselves with beguiling seamlessness within the action, and his eerie consultations with a hissing Oracle, are supplemented by recourse to a telescope (a surrogate movie camera), and a flickering movie projector that yields glimpses of the Pathé silent The Hen That Laid the Golden Egg, a newsreel of the destruction of Hiroshima, and the geopolitically apposite Henry V. Through these and other devices, Kundun systematically works through a series of plays on vision --both spiritual and sensory --and viewpoint, that in some ways represent a culmination of Scorsese's formal inquiries. If all his films are ultimately, inescapably interiorized, their momentum always spiraling relentlessly inward, Kundun is the first that exists in the mind's eye from the beginning, that locates the art of vision in a realm where exterior landscape (Tibet, history) and interior landscape (a sand-painting mandala, an infinite capacity for compassion) unite in an epic of the psyche and the spirit.

Sure, it's only a movie. And Kundun isn't naïve about its own position in the marketplace. Scorsese is careful to pull the curtain back to sneak a peek at what goes on behind closed doors when powerful men gather to take care of business. And it's certainly business as usual in China, where Mickey Mouse and McDonald's are finishing what Kissinger and Nixon started: after all, the visionary chairman of Disney recently pronounced with characteristic soulessness, "The Chinese don't understand that films are often gone in three weeks." The ephemeral and the enduring --nothing could be more germane to the concerns of Kundun. You decide: who'll be lucky to be even a footnote in movie history, Eisner or Scorsese? --G.S.

How did this project come to you?

Jay Maloney, at the time my agent at CAA, sent me Melissa Mathison's script. Usually I have my own projects lined up. I like to do the films I want to do, but then again, the way this business has been going, I have to slip in a Cape Fear or even a Casino to a certain extent --because that wasn't on my agenda, it was on Hollywood's agenda for me. So to bring in a script from outside is almost unheard of. I had known about Melissa though E.T. and another project I was involved with very briefly in the late Eighties, something that we talked about but which she didn't have time to write --Winter's Tale, from a Mark Helprin book. And she reminded me that I knew her twenty years ago in Los Angeles in the mid-Seventies.

I read the script and liked its simplicity, the childlike nature of it, that it wasn't a treatise on Buddhism or a historical epic in the usual sense. It's just too much to know about Tibet and China and their relationship over the past fifteen hundred years. That was all incidental. What you really dealt with was the child and the child becoming a young boy and the boy becoming a young man --his spiritual upbringing, and this incredible responsibility which he inherits and how he deals with it on the basis of nonviolence. And the concept of him escaping and taking Tibetan culture and religion with him to the rest of the world.

The journey that Kundun takes the viewer on is unlike anything you've undertaken previously, and it brings you ultimately to a more emotional place than any of your other films except perhaps The Age of Innocence.

It is about where you arrive. I must say that we had to go from the end back to the beginning, and it was quite a journey for us, too. First of all, Melissa Mathison's writing: we went through fourteen drafts, and we knew we were on the right track when our last draft resembled the first and second drafts more.

We had a leisurely time rewriting the script, and different concepts came up during our working together. I tried to get more historical detail in; for instance, the 13th Dalai Lama was the first to be photographed, so we began with him, showed the photography session. I was getting into the cultural aspects of it. Finally I realized that scaling down everything and keeping it personal would cut away a lot of the unnecessary political intrigues and, much as I admire them, typical elements of historical epics. And so it made it something very simple.

Something similar happened in the editing. I delineated the sections by the different ages of the Dalai Lama. The first section with the 2-year-old was pretty much straight narrative. In the section with the 5-year-old, who goes to the Potala for the first time and meets the Lord Chamberlain, scenes began to be shuffled around. And the 12-year-old section, same thing. And then in the section with the 18-year-old Dalai Lama, scenes were shuffled more. So we wound up cutting the picture purely on an emotional level, almost like a documentary, so that we shuffled around scenes that were shot for other sections of the picture and also in different locations. And what worked more for us were the dreamlike states rather than narrative scenes.

Working on these drafts, was there a point when you felt sure this was a film you could make?

I think the only real concrete thing was when I realized that I should probably try to do everything from the child's point of view. Not just low-angled shots or camera movement that's low-angle, but that as the child is growing, everything around him is seen by him, so the audience shouldn't be privy to a lot of information that the boy is not privy to. And when the Dalai Lama is privy to it, it's incomprehensible to him. Like in a family, if the adults are talking and there's a problem, a child can tell. And there's the fear and uncertainty, the parental figures coming and going --for example, Reting.

I wasn't interested in the romantic, emotional view of Tibet, crystallized over the years in Lost Horizon. On "Frontline" last week there was a snide reference to emptyheaded, well-meaning people in Hollywood making films about Tibet, and I really didn't like that. I needed to show that it wasn't Shangri-La, that there were political problems, that monks had guns, there were dungeons and an army. How do you show that without explaining all that was going on between Reting and Taktra, the older teacher? The only way I could do it was to do it through the child's eyes --at least to infer, by the child witnessing these things, and asking, "Where's Reting?" "Well, he's away." "How long's he going to be gone?" "Oh, about three or four years." And then he asks later, "Why do monks have guns?" "Yes, in this case they have guns." In this case they have guns. I liked very much playing on the Kashag wideshot, where they're a little uncomfortable in answering all these questions. There are all kinds of hints in the picture, all the way through. His father was very friendly with Reting.

Yes, you get these glimpses of the father and you're wondering, Well what's going on here?

[Laughs.] He's having a great time. He prospered well, but he died suddenly. Reting is said to have been very close with the Chinese; that's maybe one of the reasons for finding the boy in Amdo Province, which is practically a Chinese province. They had to make a deal with a Chinese warlord, it cost them a lot of money and took three years to get the kid out of Amdo. There's a lot going on there and we just wanted to imply it, so that those who know the story can say, Fine, it's accurate, and those who don't know could ask questions, and if they're interested, there's a lot of books on it.

Did you meet the Dalai Lama?

I first met with him through Melissa, a brief meeting in Washington, and last year we wound up going to India for final meetings. The week that Age of Innocence opened, I went to visit Melissa and Harrison Ford at their house in Wyoming with Barbara De Fina and some other associates of mine. The Dalai Lama was also there with his retinue and we talked for two days. Melissa really had the relationship with him, and what she did was question him about certain specifics, and if something was dreadfully wrong he would say, "Oh it wasn't that way." Or he would say, "I don't really agree with that so much, but it's totally up to you --that's your prerogative to use if you want." But there were some key political things, like the use of the state seal, which had to be made very clear.

Had he seen any of your films?

No. That's why Melissa and everybody were giggling: they wondered which one of my films they should show him. I don't think they came up with anything. But some of the people around him had seen Last Temptation.

To what degree was going into this completely unfamiliar milieu a source of difficulty?

It was freeing in a way. Once we got to shoot and had those nonactors in the scenes, something about their faces and presence took over. Often the emotional impact goes through them.

By structuring the film around one character's point of view, was there a sense of putting on a formal straitjacket, and was that part of the challenge?

Yes, I think so. To do that, and also imply the culture and imply the spirituality. And enough shots that imply it are layered one to the other, one over the other, that ultimately I was gambling on the emotional impact.

It's a strange process, making a film and it all being a gamble, having no guarantee that it will culminate in the emotion you're looking for.

Can't guarantee. No. Thelma [Schoonmaker Powell, Scorsese's editor] was a big help in pulling together certain scenes, giving me ideas and playing around with certain things. We knew that we were out on a limb. It was a process filled with anxiety, to say the least.

When you live with a film every day for two years, do you go through many stages in terms of your emotional connection to it?

[Laughs.] Yeah. With King of Comedy, I wasn't in very good physical shape at the time and I had very great difficulty shooting every day. I've always felt badly over the years that I tried Jerry Lewis's and Robert De Niro's patience a lot by not being physically well enough to pull myself together in the mornings to really know what I was shooting. [Laughs.]. It was just a bad period in my life....

When you come to editing, is there a danger of becoming deadened or desensitized?

No, I don't become dead to it. I get jaded to certain sequences and certain cuts, but if you become dead to it, then the picture's just not working, which means I'm not working. That means I can't make a movie. I get angry, frustrated, excited, very happy, then totally depressed, and anxiety-ridden constantly. It's a situation where you can't sleep well and the process is on your mind constantly. I had a similar thing happen in Casino. The writing with Nicholas Pileggi was fraught with anxiety and difficulties, because I tried to create a sort of an epic out of America and Hollywood in a way. And it's not tried and true; even though we were still dealing with narrative, we were trying to venture out into a different kind of storytelling, so you don't know where the pitfalls are going to be. Yeah, you take a gamble and say, It's going to be wall-to-wall narration, and the narration's going to be layered this way and that --okay. In Kundun, no narration. Simple shots. Not simple in execution, but simply done, where the lighting takes over.

Can you imagine making a film at this point where there is no gamble?

No, I'm afraid not....

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Twilight Samurai
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At the start of the film, the main character, Iguchi Seibei, becomes a widower when his wife succumbs to tuberculosis. His wife receives a grand funeral, more than what a lowest-ranking samurai such as Seibei could afford. Seibei works in the grain warehouse, accounting for stores inventory for the samurai clan. His samurai colleagues give him the condescending nickname "Tasogare Seibei" or "Twilight Seibei" — when evening approaches, Seibei rushes home to look after his senile elderly mother and two young daughters, Kayano and Ito, instead of bonding with his supervisor and other samurai colleagues over customary nights of dinner, geisha entertainment, and sake drinking. Even though he is of samurai class, Seibei continues to neglect his own appearance, failing to bathe and dressing shabbily. The well-being of his young daughters and medicine for his mother take priority over new clothes or covering the monthly bath fee.

Things change when Seibei's childhood friend, Tomoe (sister of Iinuma Michinojo, one of his better, kinder samurai friends) returns to town. Recently divorced from an abusive alcoholic husband, Koda, a samurai captain), Tomoe finds comfort and solace with Seibei's daughters. When her ex-husband Koda barges into the household of Michinojo in the middle of night in a drunken demand for Tomoe, Seibei accepts a duel with the captain, hoping to put a stop to the abuse. There seems little chance for him to beat the captain, but Seibei feels he must try. Dueling amongst clan members is strictly forbidden. The penalty is usually death for the winner as the loser is already dead. Seibei decides to use only a wooden stick whilst Koda brandishes a steel katana. Seibei overcomes Koda, sparing both their lives.

When Iinuma Michinojo asks Seibei to marry his sister, he feels that Iinuma is teasing him for his strong feelings for Tomoe, like when he, Iinuma, and Tomoe were children. Iinuma knows Tomoe's feeling for Seibei, and Seibei is a kind man who would treat Tomoe better than Koda. With much deep regret, Seibei cannot accept Iinuma's offer of his sister's hand in marriage, citing his inferior social status and how he did not want to see Tomoe share the burden of poverty as Seibei struggles every month to feed Kayano and Ito whilst caring for his ailing mother. Seibei stoically regrets how his departed wife suffered in his care, who came from a higher samurai family. Iinuma talks no more of it. Tomoe stops seeing Kayano and Ito.

In the final act, the head of Seibei's clan, having heard of his prowess with a sword, orders Seibei to kill a samurai retainer, Yogo Zen'emon, who has been "disowned" and who stubbornly refuses to resign his post by committing seppuku. The young lord of the clan has died from measles, and there is a succession struggle going on behind the scenes over who will be the new lord of the clan. Yogo ended up on the losing side of this conflict, hence his ordered suicide. Yogo killed a formidable samurai who was sent to kill him. Seibei is promised a rise in social standing if he accepts the dangerous mission. Seibei is very reluctant at first, requesting two days to think about it. He says that, because of great hardship in his life, he has lost all resolve to fight with ferocity. He needs two days to get himself up to the task. The new clan leader is furious over this answer and orders him removed from the clan. Seibei finally agrees to attempt the mission. Upon parting that evening, Seibei mentions the welfare of daughters to his supervisor. His supervisor promises him that he will make sure the girls will be taken care of if the worst comes to pass.

The following morning, Seibei attempts to get ready, but there is no one to help him prepare in the rituals that are customary of samurai before battle. With no one to turn to, he asks Tomoe for her assistance. Before he leaves, he tells Tomoe that he was wrong not to propose marriage. He says that if he lives, he would like to ask for her hand in marriage now that there is promise of a promotion. She regretfully tells Seibei she has already accepted another man's proposal. Seibei, feeling like a fool, tells Tomoe to forget about the silly conversation. Tomoe says that she will not be waiting at his household for him to return. Seibei says he understands completely. He thanks Tomoe for her generosity for assisting him in this final ritual. They part.

At Yogo's house, Seibei finds his target drinking in a dark, fly infested room. Yogo recognizes Seibei and invites him to sit and drink. He then asks Seibei to allow him to run away. He explains he was only faithfully serving his master and describes how both his wife and daughter also died of tuberculosis and only thanks to his master's generosity could he afford a proper funeral. Seibei commiserates and explains how he sold his katana to pay for his wife's funeral. He reveals that his scabbard contains a fake bamboo sword. This angers Yogo who believes Seibei is mocking him. Seibei explains he has been trained with the short sword, which he still carries, but Yogo is not placated.

Seibei's kodachi fighting style is matched up against Yogo's ittōryū (single long sword) swordsmanship in an intense close quarters duel. Despite allowing Yogo to slash him several times, Seibei kills Yogo when his longer sword gets caught in the rafters. Despite his wounds, Seibei limps home. Kayano and Ito rush to him in the courtyard, happy to see him. Tomoe is still there, waiting in the house. They have an emotional reunion.

In a brief epilogue, his younger daughter explains that their happiness was not to last: He died three years later in the Boshin War, Japan's last civil war. Ito often heard from fellow co-workers that Tasogare Seibei was a very unfortunate character, a most pathetic samurai with no luck at all.

Ito disagrees: her father never had any ambition to become anything special; he loved his two daughters, and was loved by the beautiful Tomoe.

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Hero
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There are many ways to share Buddhist ideals about spiritual tranquility and harmony, and one of them is to punch people in the face.

Let Jet Li explain.

"I tried to retire in 1997," said the star of "Hero," latest in a line of celebrated Chinese action movies. "But I met Lho Kunsang Rinpoche, a Tibetan Buddhist master, who said, `You cannot. You have finished your responsibility for your family, you have enough money, but you have more responsibility for yourself.' I asked, `What is this responsibility?' He said, `Go figure it out.' Then Warner Bros. called about `Lethal Weapon 4,' and Americans saw me (in his first English-language picture)."

He still hasn't had a chance to squeeze his philosophy into a U.S. film, though he remains optimistic. He and director Zhang Yimou touch on it in "Hero," where the assassin of the title learns violence doesn't solve all problems. Li expects the 2005 "Unleashed," which will be called "Danny the Dog" in its European release, makes that point:

"My character is only 10 years old mentally; he's very strong and knocks people out as a fighter, but he grew up like a dog in the shadows, without family or friends. Morgan Freeman plays a piano tuner who brings me back to friendship and compassion. It's a good drama, but I put action in there to give teenagers a way to relate to it. You can kick big people's asses, but if you don't understand emotions and responsibilities, you're just a dog."

Li knows about responsibilities. At 8 years old, he started training in wushu, a combination of martial arts, at the Beijing Sports and Exercise School. He became so accomplished that he trained seven days a week, once continuing for two days with a broken foot. He won five Chinese championships, attracting the attention of film producers at 16.

He starred in "Shaolin Temple" and "Shaolin Temple 2," going on to a martial arts film career that made him China's second-biggest star after Jackie Chan. Li passed on history's highest-grossing martial arts movie, "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon," because he'd vowed not to work if his wife was pregnant.

His English is acceptable; even at the end of more than two dozen interviews, it flies from him in bursts as rapid as his wushu movies. But like Chan, he's had bad luck in English-language movies.

His mano-a-mano "defeat" by Mel Gibson in "Weapon" was laughably absurd; "Romeo Must Die," "The One" (where he played multiple versions of his personality) and "Cradle 2 the Grave" caught neither his menacing suavity nor his stoic, quiet strength.

"In Asia, people know me very well, so we can talk about (complicated) stories," he says. "For Americans, I'm not big enough. A script for a commercial action film has to have elements guaranteed to make money. If you want to do something special. ..." His voice trails off. "You can't get a green light for a `Hero' or `Danny the Dog' in the States."

He's in remarkable health at 41, having escaped serious injury for a decade: "I've done meditation and training and kept my body in shape, and I'm spending more time to learn (stunt work). And a lot more people are trying to protect me now!"

Yet he's at the age when American action stars reposition themselves as dramatic actors, if they can.

"I think it would be difficult for me to make the transition to straight drama," he says. "In Hollywood or Asia, nobody wants to make Jet Li films without action.

"I still want to use martial arts because I know how to do them, but I can use martial arts in different stories. Zhang Yimou used them in `Hero' to talk about the kind of man who can become a hero through sacrifice. Ang Lee used them (in "Crouching Tiger") to talk about how people can fall in love."

Li's career paths have always seemed predetermined. He was steered into wushu studies without being allowed other options. Though he doesn't regret that commitment, he says, "I missed something when I was a little boy. You lose a lot of freedom, a lot of the normal life you could have had. You get something, but you pay something."

Yet Li's Buddhist philosophy teaches him that he should accept his massive success and the chance of sudden failure with equanimity.

"Today I'm an actor, maybe tomorrow I'm not. The older I get, the less I'm worrying; I spent a few weeks in Tibet learning about that.

"The more time I study Buddhism, the more knowledge, more awareness of the universe I have: why there's suffering, where there's hunger, why we're born here, why we're dying. You must be open to everything, whatever the cost, and take whatever comes to you."

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PostPosted: Nov.15.09 4:51 am 
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Into Great Silence
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The Opening Stage of Dialogue with Non-Christian Monks
This article is taken from a report on interreligious dialogue written for the AIM Bulletin, 130.
In Asia there are relatively few contacts between Christian monks and Hindu or Buddhist monks. The latter are usually ignorant of Western monasticism. On the other hand, there are monks in North America and Europe who experience a growing interest in Asian monastic traditions. (Father Thomas Merton contributed greatly to the opening of this dialog within Christian circles.) At times one is astonished at this infatuation with the Orient. Could our own spiritual tradition have suddenly become inadequate?

People are becoming more and more fascinated by the Orient. Centers of initiation into oriental techniques are springing up everywhere. No one can deny that this is a sign of the times, revealing that something is lacking. For some the Orient may represent just one more drug, but others seek in it something to help them live their daily life more abundantly. They have a thirst for a more intense spiritual life, and feel that Christian spirituality is of no help to them for this. This is a fact. Monks, who by their vocation wish to live out and promote the Christian values, cannot remain uninterested in this state of affairs.

This is the background for the study of oriental traditions as it is being undertaken by Western monks. It is research carried out not just by a few scholars but in fellowship with numerous men and women who look towards the Orient for renewal of their lives in the company of monks in their own country who are well–rooted in the Christian tradition.

Such solidarity is not a strategy for bringing lost sheep back onto the right road but rather a challenge for Christian spirituality to discover new dimensions in the Gospel. It is not a question of new formulations better “adapted, ” but of a genuinely evangelical life incarnated in a culture with which Christianity had not been in dialog before.

Across the very watertight racial, political and religious boundaries, the “monastic” ideal is to be found among Hindus, Buddhists and Christians. The monastic ideal is an archetype that belongs to the whole of humanity and represents the man who is integrated, alert, in communion with everyone and everything. To meditate, to keep vigils, to fast and to face the solitude of the desert and of celibacy, to work in silence, to walk through the night, to wait for the dawn and to live in community—all these are practices common to monks, whether Christian, Hindu or Buddhist. When they meet each other they find, often to their amazement, how close they are: “How could we have failed to know each other for so long? ”

What is this “Orient” where the Christian life has equally to take root? C.G. Jung once said: “It seems certainly true that the East is at the origin of the spiritual changes through which we are passing today. Nevertheless, this East is not a Tibetan monastery or some meeting of Mahatmas, it is in us.” We feel that it is time to awaken this “Orient within us, ” namely all the aspects of our personality which have become atrophied in our Western civilization; the place given to intuition, symbols, bodily expression, acceptance of what is tangible—in short, the feminine pole of our personality. Yet this polarity must not be over-emphasized.

We prefer to speak of levels and we note that Eastern cultures have paid more attention to the intermediate level between the completely conscious and the completely unconscious parts of our personality. Between the dark night of the unconscious and the broad daylight of the rational and voluntary, there is an entire region which partakes of both. It is here that myths and rites, art and monastic practices are created.

One of the specific roles belonging to the little churches which monasteries are, consists in developing new forms of the life of faith in service of today’s world. “The monk no longer acts save through love for Christ, through force of good habits and the delight in doing good” (Rule of Benedict, 7.69). Monasteries are schools wherein little by little these good habits incorporating love for Christ may be acquired.

We should with urgency set about reconstructing this evangelical lifestyle, while bearing in mind all the attributes of our own time, the experimentation of these last few years and the revelations in consciousness caused by it, the discoveries in science and the encounters made with other cultures.

The turning towards the Orient holds a special place in this endeavor, both because of its richness and because of the special nature of its approach. Generations of sages have been evolving a spiritual art there over thousands of years. Not everything in it is equally worthwhile and many things definitely belong to the past; however, an immense treasure of experience does exist. Above all, there is the fresh angle of the practices of detachment, meditation, ceremonial, community life, etc. with an attitude very appropriate for renewing our way of doing things, of taking the intermediate levels of the personality seriously.

In order that the exchange may be a real one, it is necessary that this dialog be a true commitment to welcoming those we are to meet. It should not be forgotten that the spiritual life does not consist of amassing and possessing, but on the contrary, of taking away and simplifying still further.

In such a spirit of Christ, meetings which began as nothing but confrontations on limited topics have gradually become deeper, reaching the level of faith. As we receive the testimony of living faith from those who are so different from us and yet so close, God’s plan for all men is revealed with the obviousness of simplicity. “We are already one. But we imagine that we are not. And what we have to recover is our original unity. What we have to be is what we are” (Asian Journal of Thomas Merton).

Buddhist Philosophy and Its European Parallels

Spurious Parallels to Buddhist Philosophy

The search for philosophical parallels is fraught with pit-falls. Some parallels are fruitful and significant, others incidental and fortuitous. I now propose to discuss the European parallels to Buddhist thought in two articles, of which the first is devoted to the true, and the second to the spurious, parallels.

As for my interpretation of the basic principles of Buddhism, I have recently given it in some detail in Buddhist Thought in India.(1) Since my views differ to some extent from those of my predecessors, I will briefly sum them up so that the reader can see what kind of "Buddhism" I compare with European philosophy.

The basic teaching of the Buddha can be expressed in one sentence: The conditioned world as it appears to us is fundamentally and irreparably undesirable, and salvation can be found only through escape to the Unconditioned, also called "Nirvaa.na." Everything else is elaboration.

All conditioned things are marred by having three "marks, " i.e., by being impermanent, "ill," and "alien to our true self."(2) Much thought has gone into determining the full meaning of those marks. "Ill," for instance, comprises not only pain and suffering, but also the unease which is nowadays known as "existential anxiety,"(3) and the mark of "not-self" has given rise to interminable discussions.(4) Human beings fret against a world which is impermanent, ill, and not-self and are not content to live in it, because they believe that in the core of their own being they are eternal, at ease, and in full control of everything.(5) This alienation of our empirical personality from our true being (i.e., from the "Tathaagata" within us(6) )is brought about by "craving."(7)

If we want to return to our original state of purity, we must first regenerate ourselves by developing five cardinal virtues,(8) of which wisdom is the last and most important. After these virtues have sufficiently matured, we can slowly attempt a break-through to the Unconditioned,(9) which, through the three doors of deliverance, i.e., Emptiness, the Signless, and the Wishless,(10) leads to Nirvaa.na,(11) which is a state in which the self has become extinct, in which none of this world is any longer extant, and which therefore transcends all words and concepts.(12) This is all quite simple to understand, though at times hard to believe. It is very much complicated, however, by being combined with an ontological theory of "Dharma" which requires a tremendous intellectual effort.(13) This theory distinguishes three levels of reality: [1] the one and single Dharma, which is the ultimate and unconditioned reality of Nirvaa.na;[2] a multiplicity of dharmas, or momentary and impersonal events, which, though illusory compared with the one single Dharma,(14) are more real than the things around us; and [3] the things of the common-sense world, which are mere verbal constructions, in that they are combinations of dharmas held together by words.(15) The Buddhist "dharma-theory is unique, and has no exact equivalent anywhere else.(16)

So much for the tenets of what I call "archaic" Buddhism. They were probably formulated by the time of A'soka.(16a) Two centuries later the further elaboration of these ideas led to two distinct schools, i.e., the "scholastic Hiinayaana" and the "Mahaayaana," which, contrary to what is often said, did not significantly conflict in their doctrines but merely diverged in their range of interest. The "scholastic Hiinayaana" concentrated on the conditioned dharmas, systematized their classification, defined more precisely their particular attributes and general marks, and worked out the relations pertaining among them.(18) The creative contributions of the Mahaayaana, on the other hand, almost exclusively concern the Unconditioned. In particular, the notion of "Emptiness," which in "archaic" Buddhism had been one of the avenues to Nirvaa.na, was now immensely enriched.(19) It was also buttressed by a searching analysis of the traditional concept of the "own-being" of dharmas(20) and by a type of logic which in Europe we would call "dialectical."(21) Equally applied to conditioned and unconditioned dharmas, "emptiness" led to their identification. The result is a "monistic" ontology which shows many analogies to European metaphysical systems of the same type,(22) while the descriptions of the bafflement experienced by the intellect when confronted with this one and unique Absolute resemble the position of the Greek skeptics in many ways.(23)

Of special interest for the theme of these articles is the chapter on "Tacit Assumptions,"(24) in which I compare Buddhist with contemporary mentality, and try to establish that Buddhist thinkers made a number of tacit assumptions which are explicitly rejected by modern European philosophers. The first, common to nearly all Indian, as distinct from European, "scientific," thought treats the experiences of Yoga as the chief raw material for philosophical reflection. Secondly, all "perennial"(25) (as against "modern") philosophers, agree on the hierarchical structure of the universe, as shown in (a) the distinction of a "triple world" and (b) of degrees of "reality," and (c) in the establishment of a hierarchy of insights dependent on spiritual maturity. Thirdly, all religious (as against a-religious) philosophies (a) use "numinous" as distinct from "profane" terms, and (b) treat revelation as the ultimate source of all valid knowledge.(26)

This is not how everyone sees it, and the doubting reader must be referred to the arguments of my book.

The cornerstone of my interpretation of Buddhism is the conviction shared by nearly everyone, that it is essentially a doctrine of salvation, and that all its philosophical statements are subordinate to its soteriological purpose. This implies, not only that many philosophical problems are dismissed as idle speculations,(27) but that each and every proposition must be considered in reference to its spiritual(28) intention and as a formulation of meditational experiences acquired in the course of the process of winning salvation. While I cannot imagine any scholar wishing to challenge this methodological postulate, I am aware that, next to D. T. Suzuki, I am almost alone in having applied it consistently.

Finally, any interpretation of Buddhism which goes beyond the indiscriminate accumulation of quotations and attempts actual1y to understand Buddhist thought involves an element of choice, in that one has to decide which one among the numerous presentations of the Buddha's doctrine should be regarded as the most authentic. Buston favors the Buddhisn of the Paala period, Frauwallner the Yogaacaarins, Oldenberg the Palii Canon (minus the Abhidhamma), Stcherbatsky the scholastic Hiinayaana and the later logicians, D. T. Suzuki the early Mahaayaana and Zen, some Chinese schools the Saddharmapu.n.dariika, and so on. With Professor Murti, I regard the Maadhyamikas as representing the central tradition of Buddhism, and believe that with them Buddhist theorizing reached its full maturity. This preference colors much of what I have to say.

What, then, is the relation of these Buddhist teachings to European philosophy? From the outset, I must admit that I do not believe in a clear-cut distinction between "Eastern" and "Western" mentality. Until about 1450, as branches of the same "perennial philosophy, "(29) Indian and European philosophers disagreed less among themselves than with many of the later developments of European philosophy. The "perennial philosophy" is in this context defined as a doctrine which holds [1] that as far as worth-while knowledge is concerned not all men are equal, but that there is a hierarchy of persons, some of whom, through what they are, can know much more than others; [2] that there is a hierarchy also of the levels of reality, some of which are more "real," because more exalted than others; and [3] that the wise men of old have found a "wisdom" which is true, although it has no "empirical" basis in observations which can be made by everyone and everybody; and that in fact there is a rare and unordinary faculty in some of us by which we can attain direct contact with actual reality--through the praj~naa (paaramitaa) of the Buddhists, the logos of Parmenides,(30) the sophia of Aristotle(31) and others, Spinoza's amor dei intellectualis, Hegel's Vernunft, and so on; and [4] that true teaching is based on an authority which legitimizes itself by the exemplary life and charismatic quality of its exponents.

Within the perennial philosophy Indian thought is marked off by two special features: [1] the reliance on yoga as providing the basic raw material of worth-while experience,(32) and [2] the implicit belief in karma and rebirth. Yoga, of course, has its counterpart in the West in the spiritual and ecstatic practices of contemplatives, and belief in reincarnation is nearly world-wide,(33) though rare among philosophers accorded academic recognition.

Then, after 1450, the East fell asleep and lived on its inherited capital, until in the end innate lethargy and aggression from the outside brought it to its present impasse. In the West, a large number of philosophers discarded the basic presuppositions of the "perennial philosophy," and developed by contrast what for want of a better term we may call a "sciential"(34) philosophy. That has the following features: [1] Natural science, particularly that dealing with inorganic matter, has a cognitive value, tells us about the actual structure of the universe, and provides the other branches of knowledge with an ideal standard in that they are the more "scientific" the more they are capable of mathematical formulation and the more they rely on repeatable and publicly verified observations. [2] Man is the highest of beings known to science, and his power and convenience should be promoted at all costs. [3] Spiritual and magical forces cannot influence events, and life after death may be disregarded, because it is unproven by scientific methods. [4] In consequence, "life" means "man's" life in this world, and the task is to ameliorate this life by a social "technique" in harmony with the "welfare" or "will" of "the people." Buddhists must view all these tenets with the utmost distaste.

"Sciential" philosophy is an ideology which corresponds to a technological civilization. It arises in its purity only to the extent that its social substratum has freed itself from all pre-industrial influences, and in the end it must lead to the elimination of even the last traces of what could properly be called "philosophy" in the original sense of "love of wisdom." For centuries it existed only blended with elements from the traditional "perennial" philosophy. As philosophies, both the "perennial" and the "sciential" systems possess some degree of intellectuality, and up to a point they both use reasoning. But considered in their purity, as ideal types, they differ in that the first is motivated by man's spiritual(35) needs, and aims at his salvation from the world and its ways, whereas the second is motivated by his utilitarian needs, aims at his conquest of the world, and is therefore greatly concerned with the natural and social sciences. Between the two extremes there are, of course, numerous intermediary stages. They depend to some extent on the quality of the spirituality behind them, which is very high, say, in Buddhism, slightly lower in Plato and Aristotle, and still quite marked in such men as Spinoza, Leibniz, Berkeley, Kant, Goethe, Hegel, and Bergson. The general trend, however, has been a continuous loss of spiritual substance between 1450 and 1960, based on an increasing forgetfulness of age-old traditions, an increasing unawareness of spiritual practices, and an increasing indifference to the spiritual life by the classes which dominate society.

Leaving aside the relative merits of the "perennial" and the "sciential" approaches to philosophy, all I want to establish at present is their mutual incompatibility, which is borne out by their mutual hostility. Our "sciential" philosophers are well aware of this. We need only peruse the writings of empiricists, logical positivists, and linguistic analysts, and it will become obvious that the animosity displayed toward a philosopher is almost a measure of his spirituality.(36) And, in a way, the moderns are quite right. For "perennial" and "sciential" philosophies represent two qualitatively different kinds of thinking which have almost nothing in common, except perhaps for a certain degree of respect for rationality. Our contemporaries continually assure us that the spiritual philosophers of the past are not "philosophers" at all, but dreamers, mystics, poets, and so on. All we can conclude from this is that the word "philosophy" is being used in two quite disparate senses: [1] as the pursuit of "wisdom," and [2] as a "rigorous" academic exercise without much ostensible purpose. The "wisdom" meant here is compounded of knowledge and a "good life," and to it apply the words of Proverbs: "Blessed is the man who has found wisdom. Her ways are good ways, and all her paths are peaceful. She is a tree of life to all that lay hold upon her."(37) It is not easy to how such words could be used of "philosophy" in the second sense.

Having stated the general principles on which the comparison of Buddhist and European thought must be based, I now speak of the only three currents of European philosophy which can significantly be compared with Buddhism, i.e., [1] the Greek Skeptics, [2] the wisdom-seeking mystics, and [3] the monists and dialecticians.

[1] The European system nearest to the Maadhyamikas is that of the Greek Skeptics. In my Buddhism,(37a) I have shown their close similarity, both in intention and structure. They also agree in that the history of skepticism exhibits the same tendency to deviate into a purely theoretical intellectualism which has continually threatened the integrity of Buddhist thought. Greek Skepticism went through four stages, which R. G. Bury(38) has called the practical, the critical, the dialectical, and the empirical. The parallel with Buddhism is closest in the first stage, i.e., with Pyrrho (360-275 B.C.).In the last, with Sextus Empiricus (A.D. 160-210), it is barely perceptible. Indeed, taking the later developments as his norm, Bury can affirm that Pyrrho "was probably not at all a full-blown Sceptic, but rather a moralist of an austere and ascetic type who cultivated insensibility to externals and superiority to environment."(39) It was only in the New Academy, with Arcesilas (315-241 B.C.), that Skepticism "ceased to be purely practical and became mainly theoretical."(40) "Thus, while Pyrrho had renounced and Timon flouted the Dogmatists, Arcesilas started the practice of refuting them scientifically and systematically, and earned thereby the abuse of Timon for his lapse from pure Pyrrhonism."(41) In fact, when we read Sextus Empiricus, we find that, although some of the original message has remained intact,(42) it has been overlaid by a vast technical apparatus accumulated over five centuries and by numerous concessions to common sense. The bulk of Sextus' work is parasitical on the dogmatic philosophers, and seems to be motivated more by disputatiousness and the desire to score debating points than by a positive interest in mental repose. In many ways his attitude resembles that of the later Buddhist logicians.

At the time of Cicero, halfway between Pyrrho and Sextus Empiricus, this loss of spiritual earnestness had not gone quite so far. Some of the statements which Cicero makes in his Academica,(43) on behalf of or in response to the Skeptics, are indeed strikingly similar to the teachings of the Maadhyamikas and other later Buddhists.

The Skeptics were people who "sanctioned nothing as proved" (qui nibil probarent(44)). "All those things you talk about are hidden, closely concealed (occultata) and enfolded in thick clouds of darkness, so that no human intellect has sufficiently powerful sight to be able to penetrate to heaven and get inside the earth."(45) Though "it is possibly the case that when exposed and uncovered they change their character" (quia possit fieri ut patefacta et detecta mutentur).(46) The Skeptics "have a habit of concealing (occultandi) their opinion, and do not usually disclose it to any one except those that had lived with them right up to old age."(47) And the opponent says, "What pray are those holy secrets (mysteria) of yours, or why should your school conceal (celatis) its doctrine as something disgraceful?"(48)

"It is the wise man (sapiens) that we are investigating,"(49) and it is on him that "all this enquiry turns."(50) He "avoids being taken in and sees to it that he is nor deceived."(51) They hold that "nothing can be perceived,"(52) or grasped (comprehendi, anupalabdhi),(53) and the "wise man will restrain all acts of assent" (adsensus, abhinive'sa).(54) There is also a reference to the "perversity" (pravitas) of seeing the non-real as real,(55) and to arguments against the senses, which are said to be "full of darkness,"(56) and against "everything that is approved in common experience" (consuetudo = sa^mv.rti).(57) And, as though he had read the Praj~naapaaramitaa, an opponent points out that "as for wisdom herself, if she does not know whether she is wisdom or not, how in the first place will she make good her claim to the name of wisdom? Next, how will she venture with confidence to plan or execute any undertaking when there will be nothing certain for her to act upon?"(58)

[2] Secondly, there is a close similarity with those ascetic, other-worldly, and "mystical" thinkers who assigned a decisive importance to "spiritual experience." They are represented by four main trends:

(a) First, there are the Wisdom speculations of the Near East between 200 B.C. and A.D. 300. Their conception of chochma and sophia is closely analogous to that of praj~naapaaramitaa, and some of the similarities are really quite startling.(59)
(b) Next, the kindred Gnostic and Neo-Platonic modes of thought, especially the later Neo-Platonists, like Proclus and Damascius,(60) and also their Christian form in Origenes and in Dionysius Areopagita, who in some passages of his Mystical Theology(61) gives what may well be called a Christian version of the Heart Suutra.
(c) Thirdly, there are the great mystics of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, such as Meister Eckhart,(62) Ruysbroeck, and Suso. Their kinship with Buddhism has been noted so often that I can be quite brief. Ruysbroeck says of the "God-seeing man" that "his spirit is undifferentiated and without distinction, and therefore feels nothing without the unity." Among Western contemplatives, suunyataa corresponds to the "desert of the Godhead," to Ruysbroeck's "idle emptiness," to Eckhart's still wilderness where no one is at home, to the "naked orison," the "naked intent stretching unto God," which becomes possible with entire self-surrender, and also to the fathomless abyss of Ruysbroeck and Tauler.(63) This "abyss" is wholeheartedly welcomed by those steeped in self-negation and self-naughting, but, later on, less selfless people like B. Pascal(64) and Ch. Baudelaire(65) felt rather ambivalent when confronted with it, since they were clearly none too enchanted with the implication of being "separated from all created things." The Theologia Germanica(66) (ca, 1425), as is well known, contains many formulations with a distinctly Buddhist flavor. The most striking similarity lies, of course, in the constant emphasis on "I-hood and selfhood," on "I, me, and mine" as the source of all alienation from true reality, and on the need to undo that "blindness and folly."(67) But this is not all. On re-reading the book I have been astounded to find how close it is in so many ways to Buddhist mentality, in spite of its author's "cautious limitation of his speculations to what is compatible with the Church,"(68) and some minor concessions to theism, especially in the later parts. Apart from the subject of satkaayad.r.s.ti this is true of what is said about the Godhead (= Nirvaa.na), the "deified man" (= the bodhisattva), activated by both "cognition" and a "love" wherein "there neither is nor can remain any I, Me, Mine, Thou, Thine, and the like, "(69) non-attainment, (70) the perverted views, (71) self-deception (= avidyaa),(72) Suchness, (73) faith, (74) the One, (75) emptiness, (76) desire, (77) and so on--in fact, quite an impressive list.
(d) Toward the end of the seventeenth century, shortly after Galileo, European mysticism of this type lost its intellectual distinction, and faded away into the "Quietism" of Molinos and Mme Guyon. In the aftermath of the French revolution, many of the basic laws of the spiritual life were rediscovered by great poets who were also fine thinkers, such as Blake, Shelley, Wordsworth, and Coleridge in England. Though often vitiated by a fatal rift between theory and practice, their thought offers many parallels to Buddhist thinking. To this generation of rebels against the Goddess of Reason belonged Arthur Schopenhauer, whose thought, partly under Indian influence, exhibits numerous, and almost miraculous, coincidences with the basic tenets of Buddhist philosophy.(78) The term "parallel" implies that two lines run parallel at more than one point, and the degree of affinity existing between Schopenhauer and Buddhism will give us a standard by which to judge other alleged "parallels."

As he himself said, Schopenhauer continued the triple tradition of "quietism, i.e. the giving up of all willing, asceticism, i.e. intentional mortification of one's own will, and mysticism, i.e. consciousness of the identity of one's own inner being with that of all beings, or with the kernel of the world."(79) He shows that life in the world is meaningless, essentially suffering, and bound to disappoint the hope that our desires might be fulfilled. He attributes this suffering to "the will to live," which is the equivalent of t.r.s.naa, and which "involves us in a delusion." He looks for salvation from this world by way of a "denial of the will to live," which is a "consequence of the dawning of better knowledge,"(80) and by an asceticism and self-renunciation exemplified in "the lives of saints, penitents, sama.nas, sannyaasins, and so on."(81) We may add his atheism, his denial of an immaterial, substantially unchanging, soul, his belief in reincarnation, his stress on compassion as the basis of morality, his indifference to the "achievements" or "rhythm" of human history,(82) as well as his insight into impermanence(83) and into the reasons why Nirvaa.na can be described only negatively, and yet it is not nothing.(84)

It is only on two points that he differs from Buddhism.

(A) He fails to appreciate the importance of disciplined meditation. Educated non-Catholic Germans of the nineteenth century were quite unfamiliar with the tradition of spiritual contemplation. On the other hand, for relaxation they habitually visited art galleries and went for walks in the countryside. It is no wonder, therefore, that Schopenhauer sees the foretaste of "the exalted peace" of Nirvaa.na, not in trances (dhyaana), but in "pure esthetic contemplation." Although the contemplation of beauty has some analogy to the conditions prevailing in trance, it is on the whole an undisciplined faculty, and its results are rather fleeting and have little power to transmute the personality. In this respect, the German bourgeois town-dweller was a lesser man than the Indian man in the forest.
(B) Secondly, Schopenhauer teaches that the Will is the Thing-in-itself, whereas in Buddhism "craving" operates within the conditioned and phenomenal world, and the unconditioned noumenon lies in Nirvaa.na, which is quite calm as the result of the abolition of craving. Unacquainted with the practice of yoga, Schopenhauer did not know that at the bottom of every mind there is a calm quietude which is the prototype of Nirvaa.na. His central metaphysical thesis is, however, incompatible, not only with Buddhism, but also with his own soteriological aspirations. It is, indeed, not only hard to see how any cognitive act can ever reach the Thing-in-itself, but it also remains incomprehensible how thought can ever have the strength to stand up against the Will, and, what is more, how as a part of the purely illusory phenomenal world it can possibly overcome and effectively "deny" it.(85) This was early recognized by Nietzsche(86) and J. Bahnsen(87) (1881), Schopenhauer's immediate successors, and led them, respectively, into nihilism and a pessimism unrelieved by the hope of escape.
(C) Furthermore, Buddhism has a distinct affinity with the "monistic" traditions of European thought. The Eleatic emphasis on the One(88) implied devaluation, depreciation, and at times even rejection of the plural and multiple world. However they may phrase it, all monistic systems are in tune with the feeling which Shelley formulated in the famous verse:

Life, like a dome of many-coloured glass
Stains the white radiance of eternity
Until death tramples it to fragments.(89)

Parmenides (ca. 480 B.C., nearly the Buddha's contemporary) and his successors assume a radical difference between appearance and reality, between surface and depth, between what we see (phainomena) and what we can only think (noumena), between opinion and truth. For Parmenides, opinion (d.r.s.ti) is derived from the senses, which are deceptive and the basis of false information. Truth is derived from the logos, which has for its object Being (that which is and has no other attributes but to be). Being is, non-being is not; and that which Is can never not be, either now or later (as in change). Nothing that Is can either arise or perish.(90)

All monistic systems are remarkably uniform, and they are all equally beset by at least four unavoidable difficulties. They must, first of all, try to guard against the misunderstanding that the One might be a datum within the world, or a part of the conglomeration. Both East and West acutely felt the difficulties of finding an adequate verbal expression for the essentially transcendent and elusive reality of the One, and both made many attempts to circumvent them by the use of paradoxes, absurdities, contradictions, tautologies, riddles, negations, and other devices. Secondly, the monists must attempt to maintain the simplicity of the One by redefining the meaning of predication in regard to it. In this context, scholastic philosophers explained that God is each of his predicates, whereas creatures have them, and that the predicates of God are not different from one another, since otherwise he would not be simple. "The absolute essence is not in one respect different from what it is in another; what it is, it is in the totality of its being."(91) Everything plural is itself and in addition something else, and only the completely free can be itself pure and simple.

A third problem concerns the relation between the One and Being. The old Eleatic school, which flourished between 540 and 300 B.C.,(92) identifies the two. One must bear in mind, however, that in doing so it uses a special archaic, pre-Atistotelian type of logic(93) which, among other things, employs "the principle of unlimited predication." This means that a predicate is either predicated without limitation of the subject or it is not valid at all. This logic only knows statements of the type "All A are all B," which predicate the entire P of the entire S, without any qualification as to time, part, or respect, without any distinction being made between total and partial identity of S and P, or between their partial and total difference. The Eleatics also "assumed that one speaks only in one sense (monachos) of 'one' and 'being.'"(94) The victory of Aristotelian logic changed all that. Plotinus describes the One expressly as "beyond being"; for Meister Eckhart, who said that "in the Kingdom of Heaven all is in all, all is one, and all is ours," Pure Being, as the most general, becomes the richest of all terms;(95) and Hegel, again, treats "being" as the initial and minimal definition of the Absolute, which is later enriched by many further "attributes." The Theologia Germanica(96) says that "he who finds satisfaction in God, his satisfaction is the One, and is all in the One. And he to whom the One is not all and all not the One, and to Whom something and nothing are not one and the same, cannot find satisfaction in God." The Buddhist non-dual One was in the same way by many devices transferred beyond all logical categories.

And, fourthly, monists must come to some decision on the status of appearance. It may well be that not all of them have, like most Buddhists, regarded appearance as a mere illusion, and it is probably true that' "there is never any suggestion in Plotinus that all things except the One are illusions or fleeting appearances."(97) But this is a distinction without much of a difference, because also in the Plotinian system the sensory and material world has an extremely low degree of reality, and is afflicted by a great loss of the original reality, near its point of extinction. In the same way, in the Hegelian system the natural world is a state of estrangement from the Absolute Spirit. In Eckhart, "all creatures, insofar as they are creatures, as they are in themselves (quod sunt in et per se), are not even an illusion, but they are a pure nothing."(98) And, for Spinoza, "a temporal existence insofar as it is purely temporal is the same as non-existence, and is perishing in proportion to its fragmentariness and exclusiveness; existence in every range insofar as it gains content move already towards an ideal of perfection which is one with eternity itself."(99)

The background of all "monistic" views(100) is a religious contempt for the world of ordinary experience, for that which is not One or not He who Is. That world is held to be unsatisfactory---partly emotionally as a source of suffering, and partly logically as self-contradictory, and as therefore either non-existing(101) or unable to abide in the state in which it is. In this way monism is apt to beget the dialectics out of itself, as in Zeno, Hegel, and Bradley, to name only a few. In the case of Zeno of Elea (ca. 460 B.C.), whom Aristotle called the founder of the dialectics, the "paradoxes" (aporiai) he devised aimed at defending by indirect proofs the view of Parmenides, which held local movement to be impossible in the ultimate reality of the true world of being. All Zeno did was to show that, on assuming movement, the consequences which follow are contradictory and untenable,(102) and that, therefore, the information derived from sense-data is patently false, since selfcontradictions are the marks of false appearance.

Zeno's dialectics has had many successors. Among them, Bradley seems nearer to the Maadhyamikas than either Hegel or Marx. Both Hegel and Marx make two assumptions which must irritate Buddhists. The first is the insistence on human history, (103) which Buddhists hold to be utterly pointless. The second is the constant introduction of the tripartite scheme of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis, which postulates a relentless "progress" from one state to the other, culminating in the tyranny of the Prussian state or of the U.S.S.R. On the other hand, Bradley is, next to Schopenhauer, the nearest representative in modern Europe of at least one side of Buddhist thought. Even the procedure of Appearance and Reality is the same as that of the Maadhyamikakaarikaa, in that one currently accepted category after the other is taken up and shown to be self-contradictory and untenable. Nor can I agree with Professor Murti's(l04) claim that they differ greatly "in their notion of the Real and its relation to appearance." In fact, they both treat the Real as ineffable, and "at once transcendent and immanent."(105) If Bradley takes care not to exclude entirely the appearance from the Real, and seeks somehow to identify the two,(106) then this is not a "rather inconsistent contention,"(107) but the exact equivalent of the Maadhyamika position ("Form is emptiness, " etc.). Both these books are essentially polemical treatises and their message seems to be identical.

part two of this essay: Spurious Parallels to Buddhist Philosophy


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Do not try and bend the spoon. That's impossible. Instead... only try to realize the truth. What is the truth? There is no spoon!

When asked by a fan if Buddhist ideas influenced them in the production of the movie, the Wachowski brothers offered an unqualified "Yes." Indeed, Buddhist ideas pervade the film and appear in close proximity with the equally strong Christian imagery. Almost immediately after Neo is identified as "my own personal Jesus Christ," this appellation is given a distinctively Buddhist twist. The same hacker says: "This never happened. You don’t exist." From the stupa-like pods which encase humans in the horrific mechanistic fields to Cypher’s selfish desire for the sensations and pleasures of the matrix, Buddhist teachings form a foundation for much of the film’s plot and imagery.

[23] The Problem of Samsara. Even the title of the film evokes the Buddhist worldview. The matrix is described by Morpheus as "a prison for your mind." It is a dependent "construct" made up of the interlocking digital projections of billions of human beings who are unaware of the illusory nature of the reality in which they live and are completely dependent on the hardware attached to their real bodies and the elaborate software programs created by A.I. This "construct" resembles the Buddhist idea of samsara, which teaches that the world in which we live our daily lives is constructed only from the sensory projections formulated from our own desires. When Morpheus takes Neo into the "construct" to teach him about the matrix, Neo learns that the way in which he had perceived himself in the matrix was nothing more than "the mental projection of your digital self." The "real" world, which we associate with what we feel, smell, taste, and see, "is simply electrical signals interpreted by your brain." The world, Morpheus explains, exists "now only as part of a neural interactive simulation that we call the matrix." In Buddhist terms, we could say that "because it is empty of self or of what belongs to self, it is therefore said: ‘The world is empty.’ And what is empty of self and what belongs to self? The eye, material shapes, visual consciousness, impression on the eye -- all these are empty of self and of what belongs to self." According to Buddhism and according to The Matrix, the conviction of reality based upon sensory experience, ignorance, and desire keeps humans locked in illusion until they are able to recognize the false nature of reality and relinquish their mistaken sense of identity.

[24] Drawing upon the Buddhist doctrine of Dependent Co-Origination, the film presents reality within the matrix as a conglomerate of the illusions of all humans caught within its snare. Similarly, Buddhism teaches that the suffering of human beings is dependent upon a cycle of ignorance and desire which locks humans into a repetitive cycle of birth, death, and rebirth. The principle is stated in a short formula in the Samyutta-nikaya:

If this is that comes to be;
from the arising of this that arises;
if this is not that does not come to be;
from the stopping of this that is stopped.

[25] The idea of Dependent Co-Origination is illustrated in the context of the film through the illusion of the matrix. The viability of the matrix’s illusion depends upon the belief by those enmeshed in it that the matrix itself is reality. A.I.’s software program is, in and of itself, no illusion at all. Only when humans interact with its programs do they become enmeshed in a corporately-created illusion, the matrix, or samsara, which reinforces itself through the interactions of those beings involved within it. Thus the matrix’s reality only exists when actual human minds subjectively experience its programs.

[26] The problem, then, can be seen in Buddhist terms. Humans are trapped in a cycle of illusion, and their ignorance of this cycle keeps them locked in it, fully dependent upon their own interactions with the program and the illusions of sensory experience which these provide, and the sensory projections of others. These projections are strengthened by humans’ enormous desire to believe that what they perceive to be real is in fact real. This desire is so strong that it overcomes Cypher, who can no longer tolerate the "desert of the real" and asks to be reinserted into the matrix. As he sits with Agent Smith in an upscale restaurant smoking a cigar with a large glass of brandy, Cypher explains his motives:

"You know, I know this steak doesn’t exist. I know that when I put it in my mouth, the matrix is telling my brain that it is juicy and delicious. After nine years, you know what I realize? Ignorance is bliss."

[27] Cypher knows that the matrix is not real and that any pleasures he experiences there are illusory. Yet for him, the "ignorance" of samsara is preferable to enlightenment. Denying the reality that he now experiences beyond the matrix, he uses the double negative: "I don’t want to remember nothing. Nothing. And I want to be rich. Someone important. Like an actor." Not only does Cypher want to forget the "nothing" of true reality, but he also wants to be an "actor," to add another level of illusion to the illusion of the matrix that he is choosing to re-enter. The draw of samsara is so strong that not only does Cypher give in to his cravings, but Mouse also may be said to have been overwhelmed by the lures of samsara, since his death is at least in part due to distractions brought on by his sexual fantasies about the "woman in the red dress" which occupy him when he is supposed to be standing alert.

[28] Whereas Cypher and Mouse represent what happens when one gives in to samsara, the rest of the crew epitomize the restraint and composure praised by the Buddha. The scene shifts abruptly from the restaurant to the mess hall of the Nebuchadnezzar, where instead of being offered brandy, cigars and steak, Neo is given the "bowl of snot" which is to be his regular meal from that point forward. In contrast to the pleasures which for Cypher can only be fulfilled in the matrix, Neo and the crew must be content with the "single-celled protein combined with synthetic aminos, vitamins, and minerals" which Dozer claims is "everything the body needs." Clad in threadbare clothes, subsisting on gruel, and sleeping in bare cells, the crew is depicted enacting the Middle Way taught by the Buddha, allowing neither absolute asceticism nor indulgence to distract them from their work.

[29] The Solution of Knowledge/Enlightenment. This duality between the matrix and the reality beyond it sets up the ultimate goal of the rebels, which is to free all minds from the matrix and allow humans to live out their lives in the real world beyond. In making this point, the film-makers draw on both Theravada and Mahayana Buddhist ideas. Alluding to the Theravada ideal of the arhat, the film suggests that enlightenment is achieved through individual effort. As his initial guide, Morpheus makes it clear that Neo cannot depend upon him for enlightenment. Morpheus explains, "no one can be told what the matrix is. You have to see it for yourself." Morpheus tells Neo he must make the final shift in perception entirely on his own. He says: "I’m trying to free your mind, Neo. But I can only show you the door. You’re the one that has to walk through it." For Theravada Buddhists, "man’s emancipation depends on his own realization of the Truth, and not on the benevolent grace of a god or any external power as a reward for his obedient good behavior." The Dhammapada urges the one seeking enlightenment to "Free thyself from the past, free thyself from the future, free thyself from the present. Crossing to the farther shore of existence, with mind released everywhere, no more shalt thou come to birth and decay." As Morpheus says to Neo, "There’s a difference between knowing the path and walking the path." And as the Buddha taught his followers, "You yourselves should make the effort; the Awakened Ones are only teachers." As one already on the path to enlightenment, Morpheus is only a guide; ultimately Neo must recognize the truth for himself.

[30] Yet The Matrix also embraces ideas found in Mahayana Buddhism, especially in its particular concern for liberation for all people through the guidance of those who remain in samsara and postpone their own final enlightenment in order to help others as bodhisattvas. The crew members of the Nebuchadnezzar epitomize this compassion. Rather than remain outside of the matrix where they are safer, they choose to re-enter it repeatedly as ambassadors of knowledge with the ultimate goal of freeing the minds and eventually also the bodies of those who are trapped within the Matrix’s digital web. The film attempts to blend the Theravada ideal of the arhat with the Mahayana ideal of the bodhisattva, presenting the crew as concerned for those still stuck in the matrix and willing to re-enter the matrix to help them, while simultaneously arguing that final realization is an individual process.

Link to Download
http://mongoljingoomn.blogspot.com/2009 ... afire.html
http://mongoljingoomn.blogspot.com/2009 ... 550mb.html
http://mongoljingoomn.blogspot.com/2009 ... 500mb.html

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PostPosted: Nov.15.09 7:25 pm 
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PostPosted: Nov.20.09 12:38 am 
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PostPosted: Jun.17.10 8:59 pm 
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Wheel of Time
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Wheel of Time is a 2003 documentary film by German director Werner Herzog about Tibetan Buddhism. The title refers to the Kalachakra sand mandala that provides a recurring image for the film.

The film documents the two Kalachakra initiations of 2002, presided over by the fourteenth Dalai Lama. The first, in Bodhgaya India, was disrupted by the Dalai Lama's illness. Later that same year, the event was held again, this time without disruption, in Graz Austria. The film's first location is the Bodhgaya, the site of the Mahabodhi Temple and the Bodhi tree. Herzog then turns to the pilgrimage at Mount Kailash. The film then focuses on the second gathering in Graz.

Herzog includes a personal interview with the Dalai Lama, as well as Tibetan former political prisoner Takna Jigme Zangpo, who served 37 years in a Chinese prison for his support of the International Tibet Independence Movement.

Download Links:
http://rapidshare.com/files/139375098/W ... part01.rar
http://rapidshare.com/files/139380031/W ... part02.rar
http://rapidshare.com/files/139384832/W ... part03.rar
http://rapidshare.com/files/139388947/W ... part04.rar
http://rapidshare.com/files/139392910/W ... part05.rar
http://rapidshare.com/files/139396568/W ... part06.rar
http://rapidshare.com/files/139400313/W ... part07.rar
http://rapidshare.com/files/139404004/W ... part08.rar
http://rapidshare.com/files/139418610/W ... part09.rar
http://rapidshare.com/files/139422685/W ... part10.rar

The Tibetan Book of the Dead - A Way of Life
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"Death is real, it comes without warning and it cannot be escaped. An ancient source of strength and guidance, The Tibetan Book of the Dead remains an essential teaching in the Buddhist cultures of the Himalayas. Narrated by Leonard Cohen, this enlightening two-part series explores the sacred text and boldly visualizes the afterlife according to its profound wisdom. Part 1: A Way of Life reveals the history of The Tibetan Book of the Dead and examines its traditional use in northern India, as well as its acceptance in Western hospices. Shot over a four-month period, the film contains footage of the rites and liturgies for a deceased Ladakhi elder and includes an interview with the Dalai Lama, who shares his views on the book's meaning and importance. Part 2: The Great Liberation follows an old lama and his novice monk as they guide a Himalayan villager into the afterlife using readings from The Tibetan Book of the Dead. The soul's 49-day journey towards rebirth is envisioned through actual photography of rarely seen Buddhist rituals, interwoven with groundbreaking animation by internationally acclaimed filmmaker Ishu Patel."

Watch
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=34MZu11n ... r_embedded

Buddha's Lost Children

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Recent AFI Festival Grand Jury Prize winner, this Dutch documentary directed by Mark Verkerk and filmed in Thailand, is about a former Thai boxer turned Buddhist monk who builds an orphanage, school and clinic—a haven for the children of that strife-ridden region.

Buddha's Lost Children has just completed a 30 week run in Dutch cinemas, drawing over 40,000 cinemagoers and making it the most successful Dutch theatrical documentary of the last few years. Hartelijk dank voor uw geweldige steun! Thank you for your wonderful support! The film continues to get enthusiastic reviews at film festivals the world over and the coming months will see the start of its international release.

Andrius wrote:
Well,I think if this monk would be a Catholic priest,he would be manifested the saint,or at least the blessed one. Great movie,thanks a lot ;)


Download
http://thepiratebay.org/torrent/4223820 ... p.XviD-WRD

Ram Dass Fierce Grace

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"After Harvard expelled Richard Alpert fro LSD experimentation in 1964, the former professor traveled to India and returned as Ram Dass. Now in his seventies, the author of “Be Here Now” continues to teach and inspire as he deals with the effects of a massive stroke. Follow one indomitable man’s journey from 1960s counterculture to the present as he transforms an unexpected illness into a call for grace."

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http://www.yourbittorrent.com/torrent/8 ... 9-avi.html

Transparent Lama

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Transparent Lama: Story of Lama Ole Nydahl & Hannah Nydahl about their Bhutanese Lama

The film presents one of the great Tibetan Buddhism teachers of the Karma Kagyu order, Lama Lopen Tseche Rinpoche. The movie covers material from two countries: Nepal - where he was a abbot of a monastery in his final years, and Bhutan - his country of birth.

His first western students Ole and Hannah Nydahl share the memories about their spiritual teacher Tseche Rinpoche.

Download
http://www.demonoid.com/files/details/2241020/4105031/

The Buddha

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The Buddha (2010)
This documentary for PBS by award-winning filmmaker David Grubin and narrated by Richard Gere, tells the story of the Buddha’s life, a journey especially relevant to our own bewildering times of violent change and spiritual confusion. It features the work of some of the world’s greatest artists and sculptors, who across two millennia, have depicted the Buddha’s life in art rich in beauty and complexity. Hear insights into the ancient narrative by contemporary Buddhists, including Pulitzer Prize winning poet W.S. Merwin and His Holiness the Dalai Lama. Join the conversation and learn more about meditation, the history of Buddhism, and how to incorporate the Buddha’s teachings on compassion and mindfulness into daily life.

Download
http://thepiratebay.org/torrent/5487899/The_Buddha

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PostPosted: Jun.17.10 9:43 pm 
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Нөхөөр!
Англиар бол мэдээллийг сайн олж болно оо.
Бидэнд монголоор бичсэн илүү далайцтай, хүртээмжтэй байх болов уу?
Аан?
Мань мэтийн хэлний мэдлэггүй хүмүүст эрээн мяраан л юм болоод байх юм.
Тэгэхээр орчуулаад сайхан тавьчихвал нэгд чиний сэтгэлийг хүмүүс илүү үнэлэх байх даа. Сайхан орчуулаад тавьчихаарай хө. Эсвэл дараа хамт нийлж байгаад монголчилчоон юм болъё!

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PostPosted: Sep.13.10 9:08 pm 
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Сайхан цуглуулга байна.

Алан Ваттс гэж нөхрийн яриа сонирхолтой. Юүтүүб дээр хайвал ихэнх бичлэг нь бий
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alan_Watts

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PostPosted: Nov.02.10 3:26 pm 
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Миний зулзаганууд :l2: :l2:

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Last edited by 2003-06-06 on Nov.05.10 11:24 am, edited 1 time in total.

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PostPosted: Nov.02.10 4:22 pm 
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great! MARK :-D

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PostPosted: Nov.05.10 10:55 am 
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Location: Хүн дотоод сэдхэлээ ариусгаж явбал Амьдралынх нь зам мөр үргэлж гэрэлтэж байх болно
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PostPosted: Nov.05.10 10:59 am 
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Location: Хүн дотоод сэдхэлээ ариусгаж явбал Амьдралынх нь зам мөр үргэлж гэрэлтэж байх болно
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Нара хот дахь Буддын хамгийн сүрлэг хийд ( Хувийн зургийн сангаас)


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PostPosted: Nov.05.10 11:13 am 
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Энэтхэгийн өмнөд Карнатка-н Намдурлин хийд


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PostPosted: Dec.10.10 1:42 pm 
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"of the Insight Asia series, Asian Corridor In Heaven is a six-episode HD documentary series co-produced by KBS and NHK about the world's oldest trade route, the "Ancient Tea and Horse Caravan Road". Pre-dating the Silk Road by 200 years, the Ancient Tea and Horse Caravan Road crossed from the Sichuan and Yunnan provinces of Southwest China over mountainous terrain into Tibet, Nepal, and India. The Caravan Road was not only an important route for the trade of tea and horses, but also a corridor connecting Chinese and Tibetan language, people, religion, and cultures."

Thank you so much for this great information. It gives more info to the readers.

------------
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Last edited by wandaschmick on Jan.06.11 4:17 pm, edited 1 time in total.

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PostPosted: Dec.29.10 1:58 pm 
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""Death is real, it comes without warning and it cannot be escaped."

I totally believe that death is real and it comes without warning so its better to give love to our family become its too late.

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PostPosted: Jan.30.15 12:25 pm 
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Хүн мичнээс үүсгээгүй ном уншихад лемурчуудын төрх одоогийн бурхадын дүрсэнд шингэсэн гэсэн байсан.


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